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  • Lindgren, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Habitatets inverkan på förekomst av Europeisk ål (Anguilla anguilla) i svenska vattendrag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Data över förekomst av två storleksklasser (0-150 mm och >150 mm) av Europeisk ål (Anguilla anguilla) i vattendrag på svenska västkusten hämtades från SERS (Svenskt ElfiskeRegiSter vid SLU). Dessa analyserades genom logistisk regression för att avgöra vilka olika makrohabitat-, landskaps- och hindervariabler som bäst kunde användas för att förutspå förekomst av ål. Resultatet visade att det för makrohabitatvariablerna var vattendragets bredd, vattenhastighet och vegetationsmängd som bäst förutspådde förekomst av båda storleksklasserna. För landskapsvariablerna var det avstånd till mynningen, fosforkoncentration och vattentemperatur som bäst förutspådde förekomsten av båda storleksklasserna. Därtill var även sjöprocent en viktig variabel för att förklara förekomsten av den större klassen ål. För variabler som beskriver vandringshinder var det dammar, ålyngelledare och naturlika fiskvägar som bäst förutspådde ålförekomst av båda storleksklasserna. Därtill var även avstånd till uppströms hinder viktigt för att förklara förekomsten av större ål (>150 mm). Mängden lämpliga tillväxthabitat för ålen kan därför troligtvis ökas genom åtgärder riktade mot lokalens vattendragsbredd, vattenhastighet och vegetationsmängd.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 10:00 1A305, Lagerlöfsalen, Karlstad
    Abelsson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Simulering som lärande inom prehospital akutsjukvård2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the research was to deepen the understanding of learning through simulation in prehospital emergency care.

    Method: In this research, qualitative and quantitative methods are used as well as integrative literature studies (I, II). Qualitative data from the interview studies (III, V) were analyzed by phenomenographic methodology. Quantitative data from the intervention study (IV) were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics.

    Results: Research on simulation and learning within the prehospital trauma care context is relatively rare (I). Simulation of realistic scenarios where the caregivers are exposed to stress contributes to strengthen caregiver knowledge, skills and experience (II). Caregivers request simulation opportunities regarding critical and emergency situations (III). They describe that learning through regular simulation provides in-depth knowledge and skills in the care of a patient exposed to high-energy trauma (V). Interventions with repeated simulation opportunities related to the care of the patient exposed to high-energy trauma give some improvement in care provided at the site of the accident (IV).

    Conclusion: Through simulation, the caregivers develop knowledge and skills and receive enhanced confidence in the care of an injured and sick patient. The research suggests several areas with potential for improvement with regard to the care of patients exposed to high-energy trauma. A model has been developed for systematic trauma simulation.

     

  • Melin, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Inlärningsprocessen för juniora revisorer ur seniora revisorers perspektiv: En studie av identifierade förändringsfaktorer i revisorers sätt att lära sig2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den nya generationens juniora revisorer kommer med nya krav på sina arbetsgivare och arbetsmiljön jämfört med hur det var i tidigare generationer. Tillsammans med högre effektivitetskrav från revisionsbyråerna samt ökade krav från regel- och standardsättare medför att lärandet av juniora revisorer åsidosätts. Westermann et als (2015) identifierade förändringsfaktorer i inlärningsprocessen för juniora revisorer inkluderar bland annat dessa aspekter. Westerman et al (2015) utförde sin studie ur ett seniora revisorers perspektiv som jag kommer att studera vidare i denna uppsats. Syftet är att göra en vidare undersökning av de av Westermann et al (2015) identifierade förändringsfaktorer för att studera om och hur de hanteras av revisionsbyråerna. Konsekvensen för ej hanterade förändringsfaktorer medför brister i inlärningsprocessen som leder till utvecklandet av ett oavsiktligt kvalitetshotande beteende hos den juniora revisorn. Om det inte hanteras kan det påverka den slutliga kvaliteten av revisionen som är av stor vikt för att byrån skall kunna bibehålla sin trovärdighet gentemot kunden, marknaden och regel- och standardsättare. Tillvägagångssättet för att undersöka detta är en kvalitativ metod med en deduktiv ansats där datainsamlingen utförs genom kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer för att fånga upp respondenternas erfarenheter, åsikter och sociala verklighet på bästa möjliga sätt. Respondenterna består av sju seniora revisorer med minst tio års erfarenhet inom yrket från fyra av de fem största revisionsbyråerna i världen. Data visar att det går att identifiera samtliga förändringsfaktorer dock i olika utsträckning samt med en skillnad mellan ett generellt och individuellt perspektiv. Det framgår att det finns brister i inlärningsprocessen på grund av de aspekter som presenteras i förändringsfaktorerna. Slutsatsen som kan dras är att risken för utveckling av kvalitetshotande beteende bland dagens juniora revisorer är hög om förändringsfaktorerna inte hanteras, samt att empirin visar på att revisionskvaliteten faktiskt redan har försämrats på grund av detta.

  • Hultin, Isabelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Tidseffektivisering av Stora Ensos emballeringsprocess: Simulering av värmeledning och luftflödesberäkningar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stora Enso Skoghall Mill is one of the world’s greatest manufacturers of paperboard. Every six paperboard package containing a liquid is made at Skoghall Mill. Paperboard has a small environmental impact since the main product, wood, is a natural source. Paperboard can have many different properties and vary in appearance and strength depending on the amount of fiber used in manufacture. Paperboard is not sealable by itself but can, with other adhesive materials be sealed. Stora Enso is producing paperboard on rolls which later are sent off to the customers. Before they sent them to the customers, the rolls are packed in protective paperboard before transportation. This process is called the packaging process.The purpose of this study was to make the packaging process more time efficient. Stora Enso currently has an overcapacity in the packaging process and the process is a bottleneck for the production. The process end press has been studied since it was more time consuming than surrounded processes. When the paperboard rolls enter the end press, the last packaging is added. The paperboard rolls has earlier been wrapped with inner pads on the ends and cover around. The end press consists of two heated plates with outer pads added. The heated plates purpose are to seal the paperboard rolls by melting the outer layer of the outer pad, the LDPE layer, to the paperboard rolls ends. The heated plates temperature is fixed at 180 °C and the plates are moving towards the paperboard rolls with three different velocities which are gradually decreased the closer the heated plates gets to the paperboard rolls. For later during seven seconds pressing the outer pads to the paperboard rolls ends.The goal with this study was to make the end press more time efficient and make a recommendation in which way the improvements should be handled. The simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics has been used to build the system, simulate the real cases and then making them more time efficient by decreasing the cycle time. The time in which the outer pads are pressed to the paperboard rolls ends was studied in a 3D-model. To find out if the pressing time was the most optimal, the temperature on the paperboard rolls ends outer layer was simulated during pressing. The heat transfer between the LDPE-layer of the outer pad and the paperboard roll were assumed to increase until the paperboard rolls ends reached the temperature of the heated plates 180 °C. Later, it was studied if the LDPE-layer could be replaced by a material which makes the heat conduction go faster. Density, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity were factors which were varied. The maximum velocities of the heated plates were studied by calculations. The air between the heated plate and the paperboard roll were assumed to have a cylindrical shape and the air flow through the cylinder was calculated by the Reynolds number. The velocity of the heated plates was assumed to be increased as long as the air flow was laminar. It was also examined if the movement of the heated plates could begin earlier since the heated plates with added outer pads are standing still under different time before the heated plates start moving.To make the end press more time efficient, four improvements are recommended as follows: decrease the pressing time, start the movement of the heated plates earlier, replace the LDPE-layer and increase the velocity of the heated plates. The improvements are recommended in order of what was assumed to be easiest and least time consuming for the company.The simulations showed that the pressing time can be decreased to 3-3.5 seconds since no heat transfer occurred between the heated plates and the paperboard roll after this time. This improvement provides a time saving of 3.5-4 seconds. To start the movement of the heated plates earlier was possible since they are standing still with added outer pads 3.35-9.33 seconds before the movement starts. The company is recommended to start the movement of the heated plates after 3.35 seconds regardless of the width of the paperboard rolls. This improvement could save up to 5.98 seconds.It is recommended to replace the LDPE-layer by a material with higher thermal conductivity and density, but with similar adhesive properties. A time saving of one second can be done if the thermal conductivity is changed from 0.33 to 0.5 W/mK at the same time as the density is changed from 605 to 800 kg/m3.Calculations of the air flow showed that the maximum velocity of the heated plates was 16.37 m/s at the distance 1700 mm from the paperboard roll. To make this improvement, a reprogramming of the heated plates movement is required, from three velocity stages to one velocity which decrease as the distance between the heated plates and the paperboard roll decrease. This is the last recommended improvement since it is believed to be the most challenging one for the company and a reconstruction may be needed. The calculated maximum velocity of the heated plates was about 40 times greater than the fast velocity of the heated plates today and therefore the company should be able to increase the fast velocity and the medium velocity. Four seconds is the optimal time saving to avoid waiting time between the sub processes before and after the end press. A time saving of four seconds could easily be done by using the calculated maximum velocities.If all improvements are done a time saving of 15 seconds can be made. Since the optimal time saving is four seconds, the company can choose which improvements that should be done and in which extent. A time saving of four seconds means that the cycle time of the end press is reduced by 12-13 %, while the production capacity increase with same rate.

  • Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Arvidson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att bekämpa det onda eller främja det goda: Fyra verksamhetsperspektiv på individer i våldsbejakande miljöer samt preventionsarbete runt dessa2016In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 53, no 4, 345-370 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to examine organizational understandings and perceptions that can affect the current work with defectors from and members in violent and extremist environments. The empirical material consists primarily of answers to open questions in a survey, where professionals from four organizations are represented: social services, school, police and politics. The material is analyzed with direct qualitative content analysis and shows two contradict approaches to the problem; one that argues for "fighting the evil" and another that argues for "promoting the good". The theoretical framework presented is Erving Goffmans’ frame analysis, Howard S. Beckers’ labelling process and Ingrid Sahlins’ discussion about different kinds of prevention strategies. The results show how organizational understandings and perceptions are far from uniform but rather disparate, and also that assumptions made by professionals have wide implications – often related to morally based approaches grounded on notions of good and evil.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-05 09:15 9C203, Nyquistsalen, Karlstad
    Bengtsson, Peder
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Apply heat pump systems in commercial household products to reduce environmental impact: How to halve the electricity consumption for a household dishwasher2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the household appliance industry, heat pump systems have been used for a long time in refrigerators and freezers to cool food, and the industry has driven the development of small, high-quality, low-price heat pump components. In the last few decades, heat pump systems have been introduced in other household appliances, with the express purpose of reducing electricity consumption. Heat pump tumble dryers have been on the market since 2000 and dominate the market today. A heat pump dishwasher was introduced on the market in 2014 and a heat pump washing machine in 2016. The purpose of adding a heat pump system in these three products was to decrease electricity consumption.

    Papers I and II used a methodology where transient simulation models were developed and used to increase knowledge about how to decrease electricity consumption for a tumble dryer and a dishwasher by adding a heat pump system. Papers II to V showed that a lower electricity consumption and lower global warming potential together with an energy-efficient drying method, where no humid air evacuates to the kitchen, give a heat pump dishwasher competitive advantages compared to any conventional dishwasher currently on the market. Using simulations, this dissertation concludes that a future commercial heat pump dishwasher, using R600a as a refrigerant, will reduce electricity consumption and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) by 50% compared to the conventional dishwasher.

    The willingness from the customer chain to pay extra for this heat pump dishwasher is because of the decreases electricity consumption and the fact that no humid air evacuates to the kitchen. This willingness makes the heat pump dishwasher to a variant which have possibility to succeed on the future market.

    The challenge for the manufacturer is to develop and produce a high-quality heat pump dishwasher with low electricity consumption, predict future willingness to pay for it, and launch it on the market at the right moment with the right promotion in order to succeed.

  • Törngren, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Modulhus som passivhus: Undersökning på modulhus lämplighet att uppnå passivhusstandard med hjälp av byggnadstermografi och energiberäkningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggnads- och servicesektorn står för en stor del av den totala energianvändningen i Sverige och människan är idag väl medveten om konsekvenserna vid hög energianvändning. För att minska energianvändningen har det utvecklats energisnåla hus t.ex. passivhusen. Ett passivhus är välisolerat och tätt vilket medför att det blir energieffektivt.Modulhus i trä medför flera positiva egenskaper, trä är förnyelsebart och har en lägre påverkan på koldioxidutsläpp i förhållande till det flesta andra byggnadsmaterial. Modulhus kortar ner byggprocessen jämfört mot platsbyggnation vilket är bra då det råder bostadsbrist.En modulbyggnad uppfört i trä har undersökts med termografering och energiberäkningar. Med målet att undersöka om en modulbyggnad kan uppnå passivhusstandard. Med termograferingen har byggdelar samt anslutningar mellan byggdelar kontrollerats. Energiberäkningsprogrammet VIP-Energy har använts för att utvärdera byggnadens energiprestanda. Det har konstruerats ett alternativ på hur modulhuset kan utformas i passivhusstandard.Termografiundersökning tyder på att byggnaden har flera köldbryggor, varav ett fåtal bör åtgärdas för att uppnå passivhuskraven. Köldbryggor som uppstår oregelbundet i modulskarvar behöver minimeras eller utebli helt för att uppnå passivhusstandard. Balkonginfästningarna i byggnaden utgör återkommande köldbryggor som behöver justeras för att uppnå passivhusstandard. Energiberäkningarna visar att det är klart möjligt att uppnå passivhusstandard för byggnaden. Värmeförlusttalet för byggnaden klarar passivhuskraven.

  • Fernstedt, Veronica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Formativ bedömning ur ett elevperspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' experiences and perceptions of formative assessment in mathematics in grade 1 and two questions were asked.

    • How do students perceive and experience assessment in mathematics?
    • How do students perceive and experience the five key strategies?

    In order to be able to answer the research questions, qualitative interviews with students were conducted. The results shows that students in the study perceive assessment in mathematics as abstract and sometimes found it difficult to express themselves. Many of the students indicate that the assessment is for themselves to get further in their learning. The five key strategies for formative assessment are perceived positively by most students, some strategies evoke more emotion than others but overall the students felt positive.

    Based on this study, three areas can be seen as beneficial to reflect on to improve formative assessment from a student’s perspective: make the link between work and assessment visible, questions based on the student's everyday life, allow more time for training on peer assessment and self assessment.

     

    As the study was carried out in a very limited extent, it is not appropriate to draw general conclusions from the results.

  • Johansson, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), FoU Välfärd Värmland.
    Kartläggning av behov och förutsättningar för en avhopparverksamhet i Värmlands län2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport redovisas resultatet av en regional kartläggning genomförd vid FoU Välfärd Värmland på uppdrag av Brottsofferjouren Värmland. Projektet har genomförts under 2014 och möjliggjorts genom medel från Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor. Kartläggningens syfte var att utifrån ett verksamhetsperspektiv undersöka behov och förutsättningar för en avhopparverksamhet i Värmlands län, med tonvikt vid behovsfrågan och särskilt fokuserad på individer från politiskt extrema organisationer. De verksamheter som representeras i studien är socialtjänst, polis, skola och politik, och data har insamlats via en webbenkät. De olika verksamheterna har valts då de bedömts som sannolika att möta den problematik som omgärdar våldsbejakande miljöer och avhopp.

    Med webbenkäten har de olika verksamheternas befintliga beredskap samt erfarenheter av de aktuella miljöerna kartlagts. Utifrån detta har en bedömning av överensstämmelsen mellan befintliga samt önskvärda åtgärder och rutiner gjorts, varefter en bild kunnat tecknas av situationen samt av behov och förutsättningar för en lokalt förankrad avhopparverksamhet. Utöver enkäten har ett antal kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts med särskilt sakkunniga inom området. Dessa intervjuer har bidragit med ytterligare en dimension till analysen av behov och förutsättningar.

    Resultatet visar inte på ett entydigt eller akut överhängande behov av en avhopparverksamhet, även om det finns en utbredd upplevelse av att behovet kommer att öka i och med att politisk extremism uppfattas som en växande problematik. Webbenkäten visar dessutom att det bland annat finns ett behov av:

    • Utökad samverkan mellan berörda aktörer och upprättande av nätverk för de som kommer i kontakt med problematiken
    • Förbättrade informationskanaler
    • Ökad kunskapsförsörjning i frågorna
    • En förstärkning av det förebyggande arbetet

    Intervjuerna visar dessutom på vikten av att uppmärksamma den smittoeffekt som kan uppstå när en politiskt extrem organisation finns etablerad på en ort. Vidare framhålls de anhöriga som viktiga resurser i arbetet runt såväl avhoppare samt aktiva extremister – och även som en grupp som kan ha egna behov som behöver mötas av en eventuell avhopparverksamhet. Intervjuerna betonar även vikten av närhet, omedelbarhet och tillgänglighet i arbetet med avhoppare – något som accentuerar vikten av en lokal beredskap.

    I rapporten kommenteras förutsättningar för ett framtida arbete med avhoppare genom en bedömning av nuvarande beredskap och rutiner, och ett antal åtgärdsförslag att arbeta vidare med formuleras.

  • Public defence: 2017-04-28 13:00 1B364, Karlstad
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Towards Secure Multipath TCP Communication2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution in networking coupled with an increasing demand to improve user experience has led to different proposals to extend the standard TCP. Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is one such extension that has the potential to overcome few inherent limitations in the standard TCP. While MPTCP's design and deployment progresses, most of the focus has been on its compatibility. The security aspect is confined to making sure that the MPTCP protocol itself offers the same security level as the standard TCP.

    The topic of this thesis is to investigate the unexpected security implications raised by using MPTCP in the traditional networking environment. The Internet of today has security middle-boxes that perform traffic analysis to detect intrusions and attacks. Such middle-boxes make use of different assumptions about the traffic, e.g., traffic from a single connection always arrives along the same path. This along with many other assumptions may not be true anymore with the advent of MPTCP as traffic can be fragmented and sent over multiple paths simultaneously.

    We investigate how practical it is to evade a security middle-box by fragmenting and sending traffic across multiple paths using MPTCP. Realistic attack traffic is used to evaluate such attacks against Snort IDS to show that these attacks are feasible. We then go on to propose possible solutions to detect such attacks and implement them in an MPTCP proxy. The proxy aims to extend the MPTCP performance advantages to servers that only support standard TCP, while ensuring that intrusions can be detected as before. Finally, we investigate the potential MPTCP scenario where security middle-boxes only have access to some of the traffic. We propose and implement an algorithm to perform intrusion detection in such situations and achieve a nearly 90% detection accuracy. Another contribution of this work is a tool, that converts IDS rules into equivalent attack traffic to automate the evaluation of a middle-box.

  • Cecilia, Burström
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Agnes, Hellstrand
    Karlstad University.
    Vargen i ett polariserat Sverige: En kritisk diskursanalys av 2015års vargjakt i lokal och rikstäckande press2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the discourse about wolf hunting in both local and nationwide newsmedia and whether the reporting was framed in a way that affect the relationship between the urban and rural. The following questions were asked: 1. How do the newspapers represent the hunt, the wolf and other main figures? 2. Does the discourse maintain or challenge traditional relations of power that affect the relationship between the urban and rural? 3. With question 1 and 2 in mind; Are there differences, and if so what are they, in the local and nationwide newsmedia? In order to answer these questions a qualitative content analysis of 20 articles about wolf hunting was performed. The articles were from the local newspaper Värmlands Folkblad and the nationwide newspaper Dagens Nyheter. The analysis was based on Fairclough’s theory and method critical discourse analysis and in addition the theories framing and representation was applied for further depth and understanding. The result showed that voices were put in contrast to each other with conjunctions such as “but”, “in spite of” and “however”. Thus the newspapers framed the issue as a conflict. This conflict also manifested itself in various presuppositions. The study conclude that the hunt was represented as controversial and questioned by animal- and environmental organizations as well as the UN. The representation of the wolf was full of contradictions, such as being an endangered species/not being an endangered species, it should be feared/should not be feared and there are too many wolves in Sweden/there are too few wolves in Sweden. The main interest groups hunters and livestock owners were represented as competent (the hunters) and disadvantaged (the livestock owners). Other groups, who previous research mean feel overlooked, are represented in the newspapers but not in a way which challenge traditional relations of power. Lastly, the main differences in the local and nationwide newsmedia was how much influence the different voices had in the articles. In Värmlands Folkblad’s atricles the hunters were the prominent voice whereas in Dagens Nyheter’s articles hunters were neglected. However, scientists were one of the most salient voices in Dagens Nyheter’s but were absent in Värmlands Folkblad’s articles. Thus a difference could be found in who were given the opportunity to comment the issue.

  • Karlsson, Emmeline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    I huvudet på en coach: En kvalitativ studie om coachers upplevelser2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Andersson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    De, dem och dom: Vilka är dom som vill slopa de och dem?: En granskning av dom-debatten i svensk media och pronomenens användarstatistik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine arguments that have occurred in the debate concerning de, dem and dom during the past three years in Sweden’s six biggest newspapers (Dagens Nyheter, Expressen, Göteborgs-Posten, Aftonbladet, Svenska Dagbladet och Sydsvenskan, this according to Tidningsutgivarna [TU]). The arguments are collected from articles via the article search tool Retriever. Different search strings were tested in Retriever’s search field in order to find articles regarding the dom-debate. Eventually the search strings and phrases ”de och dem”, ”de/dem” and ”dom-debatten” resulted in most hits. Based on specific selection criteria, 26 articles remained. During the same period of time, the study also set out the examine which of the pronouns that are most used in written language: the informal version dom or the formal version de and dem, using Språkbanken’s concordance tool Korp. In this way, the study demonstrates a connection between the arguments that occur in today’s debate and the actual user statistics. Furthermore, the results are also compared with Språkrådet’s recommendation regarding these pronouns. As such, the results in this study present the debate’s temperature and the pronouns user statistics, which eventually lead to conclusions about the current de-dem-dom-climate. Content analysis of the arguments and user statistics revealed that de and dem are used more frequently than dom in written language. It also concludes there are more arguments supporting a continuing use of de and dem in media during the last three years, compared to arguments supporting a dom-reform during the corresponding period of time.

  • Augustsson, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    "Dra alla över en kant": En studie av ungdomars förståelse och användning av idiom.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Arvidson, Märta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    I skogen är det lugnt och skönt: Barn och pedagogers tankar om skogen2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Utas, Tanya
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Lindbjörk, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Allt man gör, gör man ju för att alla barn ska må bra”: – en kvalitativ studie av skolkuratorers arbete med psykisk hälsa2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An essay on school counselors view and work on mental health. The study aimed to

    investigate how school counselors who work with adolescence work with and view mental

    health and the prevention and promotion work on mental health carries. The essay is based on

    the background of mental health among young people, student health's mission and

    responsibility of the school counselor. Furthermore the essay is based on current research on

    young people's mental health, psychosocial work within the school and school counselors

    work, methods of prevention and health promotion. A qualitative study was carried with five

    school counselors working in different high schools. The material from individual interviews

    with the school counselors was analysed by a qualitative analysis where the results showed

    two main categories; Working method - a variable of relationship, cooperation, perspectives

    and discretion and Mental health - an individual borderland, with its subcategories. The

    results were discussed on the basis of organizational theory and with understanding of the

    background section. The study resulted in a conclusion that school counselors look at mental

    health as an individual experience that is both consistent and differed from the conception.

    Another conclusion of the study is that school counselors work with mental health to a great

    extent by treating the symptoms of mental illness, particularly at the individual level and

    individual cases. Work on mental health, prevention and promotion is done to a greater extent

    on a organizational level but also at a group level. Finally, the authors could say that the study

    showed that mental health includes and is affected by several components and that it is

    therefore difficult for school counselors working in general with mental health. Work was

    instead carried by working with individual factors that could affect mental health.

  • Jacobsson, Katharina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Processer och motorer i lokalt skolförbättringsarbete2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades there has been a growing interest in studying processes in improvement work. A particular interest has been the improvement process that the organisation undergoes and why events evolve in the way they do. By better understanding improvement processes and identifying supporting and hindering forces, the possibilities successfully to plan and implement improvement work in a systematic way increases. The focus of this thesis is organisation processes in schools and the relations that hold between planned and emergent improvement, when using a research-based strategy. The aim of the study is to describe and understand how processes are initiated, developed and completed when using a strategy called ‘Scope for Action Model’(frirumsstrategin).

    The empirical material of the study was organised and analysed according to Van de Ven’s and Poole’s four ideal types for process studies. Within each type, motors have been identified, which contain generative mechanisms that are a key to how actions, events and activities emerge and are driven forward.

    The results of the study show that the emergent initiatives are more frequent than the planned ones and that they are more likely to generate an improvement – in the study defined as something new in the organisation. However, on several occasions the planned improvement work inspires emergent initiatives for improvement and in some cases seems to be a fundamental condition for their existence. The different motors, which in the analysis are seen as driving forces, support or challenge each other, making the process develop and produce a result.

    The study shows that the participants reshape the strategy to make it fit into the organisation of the school. The results also show that teachers and principals have to be well-informed of how to work with a strategy in a practical and constructive way. They have to be able to translate crucial moments in the strategy to stimulate the participants to creative actions. The strategy for school improvement is not shown to be a solution which itself can create improvement, but in combination with the participant’s creative goal settings it can be a contributory factor.

  • Andresen, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Manligt och kvinnligt i Alla tiders historia A: En diskursanalytisk studie av kapitel i läroboken Alla tiders historia A2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate how the writers of two history textbooks describe females and males, and how they are presented in different discourses. The theories, which constitutes the foundation of the essay is that of gender studies, queer-theory and gender-socialization. The main methods of the essay are discourse analysis and text analysis. The main questions are:

    - What type of discourses are found in the text books and how would they be described?

    - How are women and men depicted in the found discourses?

    - How are the discourses holding up with school values?

    The results of the essay concluded that there are three different discourses present in the two text-books. These discourses are as follows: ”women as oppressed”, ”women mentioned in relation to the male sex” and ”males as the oppressors”. These discourses are analyzed with the mentioned theories above.

  • Nordenström, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Värmesystem i flerbostadshus: Kombinera fjärrvärme med frånluftsvärmepump: För ekonomisk och hållbar utveckling2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the current EU strategy Sustainable Development is to identify and develop measures to ensure that quality of life can be constantly improved, both for present and future generations. A part of the strategy is the climate targets which in the first phase extend to 2020. Its Member States shall then have reduced both their energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by 20 %. In Sweden the residential and service sector stands for 40 % of the country's energy use, they have themselves set the target to 25 % savings. New policies and improved energy efficiency will lead to completion.

    An important area of development is the heating of buildings, which accounts for 60 % of the sector's energy use. A large part of the housing stock is considered to have an energy savings potential of 20-50 %. Next to the improvement of the building envelope, the selection of heating system is of great importance.

    More than 90 % of delivered heat energy to the apartment blocks in Sweden comes from district heating. By supplementing district heating with exhaust air heat pumps, the building's energy efficiency can be increased and building owners can make a financial gain in the reduced amount of purchased energy. District heating distributers have responded to this development by changing their subscriptions, making the heating system oversized much of the year, thereby the heat pump becomes more or less redundant.

    In this case study, the heating system of an apartment building in the town of Grums (Sweden) is of interest. The exhaust air heat pump was already installed before the district heating subscription was changed. The new district heating subscription implicates that property owners have to choose which maximum base effect they can get delivered all year round. An investigation is necessary to ensure that the selected option provides a stable and low cost at different temperature.

    From the property owner's perspective, the problem is of economic nature. This study however, concentrates on the combination of district heating with heat pumps seen from the energy use and sustainability aspect. Is the heating system working in the best way today, or it is possible to find alternative modes that work better? The target with this study is to find an operational mode that primarily will reduce fuel use by 25%, secondary will lower carbon dioxide generation and cut life-cycle cost of the heat pump and thirdly will reduce the amount of purchased energy. These targets must be achieved within the annual outside temperature of 5-7 ºC.

    Currently the exhaust air heat pump is used as basic heat, warming up radiators and domestic hot water while district heating covers the deficit of the house's heating demand. Current operating mode is compared with two alternatives. Option 1 involves a change of the heat pump, to one with more power, district heating will heat the domestic hot water and will continuously work as a backup for the heat pump. In Option 2, the operation mode is altered to optimize use of the district heating base effect, the heat pump runs only when the selected base effect does not cover the heating demand. Apart from that the heat pump is replaced in the first case, no reinstallation is required for these options.

    Study calculations are made by using Microsoft Excel and duration diagrams.

    The results shows that none of the options reach the targets completely, however, Option 1 is closer considering that the primary goal (saving resources) is reached in part.

    The study shows that heating systems in apartment buildings, similar to the reference object, can be adjusted as well as the choice of base effect (district heating) in order to successfully reduce environmental effects and/or achieve financial gain. Increased use of district heating indirectly reduces carbon dioxide generation but increases resource use. Replacement of exhaust air heat pump reduces purchased energy which leads to reduced use of resources and better economy, however, will increase electricity consumption, which gives a marginal addition contribution of carbon dioxide generation.

  • Andersson, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Explicit and implicit comparison of English and Swedish in English course books for year 7 and year 11 in Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares and contrasts how linguistic transfer has been incorporated in English course books for year 7 and year 11 in Swedish schools. This study has focused on finding explicit and implicit reference to transfer and interference in English course books for Swedish students by identifying references from the authors where they have pointed to similarities and differences between Swedish and English. The results of the study showed that comparisons between the languages were used in all books, but explicit references were more common than implicit references. Of the four different linguistic levels (pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, pragmatics) examined in this study, grammatical comparisons were the most frequent. However, the authors of the books for year 7 used more comparisons between the languages than the authors of the year 11 books. One conclusion that can be drawn from the present study is that it is up to the authors of the course books to decide to what extent they should compare and contrast the two languages, since the national curricula for the subject English give no indications of how the subject of transfer should be dealt with in language acquisition. 

  • Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    A Shaken Self on Shopping: Consumer Threats and Compensatory Consumption2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of experiments, with a total sample of over 2,400 participants, this thesis investigates how various threats that customers may encounter influence the customers’ subsequent purchase and choice behaviors. Furthermore, this thesis examines whether individuals’ predicted behaviors in certain consumer contexts are congruent with customers’ actual behaviors in these very contexts.

    Paper I takes an evolutionary approach and investigates whether a status threat to male customers, induced by exposure to physically dominant men, results in compensatory consumption of products that signal status through price or size.

    Paper II takes a reactance-based approach and examines whether customers whose freedom to touch has been threatened compensate by touching, and ultimately purchasing, a larger number of products.

    Paper III investigates whether threats to customers’ self-control in one domain influence choice behavior and consumption preferences in another unrelated domain. More specifically, the paper examines whether exposure to attractive opposite-sex faces (and hence a subtle activation of sexual desire and its associated pleasure-seeking mindset) makes individuals more motivated to choose and consume unhealthy-but-rewarding foods.     

    The main findings of this work can be summarized as follows: Consumer threats result in compensatory consumption, not only in the specific domain under threat, but also in unrelated or only symbolically similar domains. Such compensatory responses are in direct contrast to consumer lay beliefs and even the predictions made by marketing professors and other scholars, which suggests that people are generally unaware of the impact that certain threats have on their behavior. These results should be as interesting for customers who want to make informed choices and resist various influence attempts as for marketers, advertisers, and retail managers who want to influence customers. 

  • Hussein, Maryan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    En studie om HVB-personalens emotioner och roller2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there have been many unaccompanied children that have fled to Sweden because of the war that’s going on in their home country, for instance. The unaccompanied children are placed in HVB homes, where they are offered support and care. The aim of this study is from an emotional perspective. The study examines how the HVB staff is experiencing their work by exploring how the staff handles and gets affected by emotions in their everyday work and also examines the emotional rules at their workplace. This will be done based on qualitative approach, through semi-structured interviews with 4 integration supervisor and one housing supporter. The focus will be on HVB staffs descriptions. The material from the interviews has been compiled with empirical data that I will interpret, based on the selected theories of the material to answer the study questions. The theories that I have used mainly in the study are Goffman’s theory of the dramaturgical perspective and front- and back region. I have also used Arlie Hochschild´s theory of emotional workand the object and subject position discussed by Markus Arvidson and Sara Johansson. The result shows that the HVB staff occupies a professional role, handling and getting influenced by emotions in their work. This may be due to the emotional rules that exist at work and also because of the professional role they play.

  • Olausson, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Poängjakt eller klientkontakt?: En kvalitativ studie om den psykosociala arbetsmiljön i psykiatriska öppenvården2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Karlsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Lindberg, Annelie
    Mobiliseringsmetoder vid en intensivvårdsavdelning- En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Autrieb, Alexandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Vierikko, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Preventiva åtgärder för att förebygga ventilatorassocierad pneumoni hos intensivvårdspatienter: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ventilatorassocierad pneumoni (VAP) är den vanligaste vårdrelaterande infektionen på intensivvårdsavdelningar (IVA). Orsaken till infektionen är att patienten behöver assisterad andning genom invasiv ventilatorbehandling vilket medför att bakterier får fäste i lungorna och orsakar VAP. Syftet med studien var att genomföra en genomlysning av forskningen om preventiva åtgärder som kan leda till minskad incidens av VAP vid invasiv ventilatorbehandling. Studiens metod var en systematisk litteraturstudie. Tio kvantitativa vetenskapliga artiklar sammanställdes med hjälp Hsieh & Shannons (2005) konventionella kvantitativa innehållsanalys med en induktiv ansats. Resultatet delas in i fyra olika kategorier; Kunskapsnivå, Utbildning, Mobilisera upp och aspirera bort sekret samt Munvård. Resultatet visade att kunskap och utbildning angående preventiva VAP åtgärder ger minskad incidens av VAP. Även åtgärder som god munhygien med framförallt klorhexidin, upprepad munvård samt att avlägsna sekret ger minskad risk att utveckla VAP. Konklusionen är att intensivvårdssjuksköterskan behöver kontinuerlig utbildning för att inte förlora kunskap i preventiva omvårdnadsåtgärder. Kontinuerlig munvård och att mobilisera och avlägsna sekret hos den intuberade patienten är viktiga preventiva åtgärder på en intensivvårdsavdelning för att minska risken för VAP

  • Bergman, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Introduktion nr 4 20152015In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 21, no 4, 4-6 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Ramström, Fanny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Att planera regionalt: En fallstudie om regional utvecklingsplanering och kommunal översiktsplanering i Örebro länIndependent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Johnsson, Carin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hök, Marita
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskans erfarenhet av patientbedömning och patientsäkerhet vid utskrivning till allmän vårdavdelning: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The number of beds for hospitalized patients has been reduced at most hospitals in Sweden in the recent years. Patients are transferred at an earlier stage from intensive care unit to general ward and in more severe condition than before, which can jeopardize the quality of health care. Aim: The aim of this study was to bring forth the experience of intensive care nurse’s with respect to assessment of patients and patient safety at dismissal to general care units. Method: Qualitative methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of 12 intensive care nurses. The data collected was subjected to qualitative analysis. Results: Two main categories with three respectively four subcategories were identified in the assessment of patients and patient safety: Assessment from a nursing perspective with the subcategories 1) Variations in criteria for dismissal depending on situation, 2) Collective assessment of patients, 3) Safety in the transfer; The importance of the healthcare organization   with subcategories 1) Lack of hospital beds and staff causes lack of safety, 2) Transfer at night jeopardizes patient safety, 3) Transfer to lower level care units places significant demands on staff, and 4) Need for additional level of care. Conclusion: Specific criteria should preferably be fulfilled before the patient is dismissed to general care, but that is not always the case that it is. The teamwork between the intensive care nurse, responsible doctor and the assistant nurse generally works well. Reporting is an important factor in increasing patient safety at transfer to general care unit. The intensive care nurses experience insecurity in that the patients are transferred to lower level care prematurely, related to lack of resources and that transfer at night jeopardizes patient safety. A mobile intensive care group is considered beneficial and an intermediate care unit would be a good option to ensure patient safety.

  • Nisstany, Karwan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Knezevic, Sasha
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gaining customer insight: How companies can differentiate themselves using a customer-dominant logic approach on business2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a holistic understanding of customers’ value

    perceptions and experiences within the online apparel industry. In doing so, the authors’ hope

    to develop managerial guidelines for companies to utilize. This will be done with a customerdominant

    logic approach.

    Design/Methodology/Approach

    As the study aims to understand behavior and perceptions, the authors have used an inductive,

    qualitative method to gain the deepest possible customer insight. By using a case study, the

    authors have been able to further understand the given context. Using focus group interviews

    resonated in the authors aim to understand why the participants reasoned as they did, as they

    would in a focus group session argue for their standpoint. The interview template was

    influenced by the theories on value formation within customer-dominant logic.

    Findings

    This study strengthens the relevance of CD logic empirically and provides a deeper

    understanding of customers’ value perceptions and the reasons behind them. Functional

    elements of value were proven to be important, yet it was the values derived of emotional and

    life-changing elements that created true value. Based on the findings of this study, the authors

    have proposed a new term, true value, which refers to a state-of-mind in which a person finds

    in psychological well-being through the experiences derived from a product or service.

    Furthermore this study highlights social media’s importance within the given context.

    Originality/Value

    Previous research on customer-dominant logic has mainly been on a theoretical level. This

    research contributes to service research by studying the phenomena through empirical

    research within the online apparel industry. Furthermore, this research develops managerial

    guidelines for companies applying customer-dominant logic within the given context.

    Research Implications/Limitations

    Awareness of the importance of social media within the online apparel industry can provide

    insight and assist businesses in shaping marketing strategies. This research was limited by

    time, demographical group and geographical location. Furthermore, the generalizability of the

    results is limited to the given context.

  • Hvit, Felix
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Förutsättningarna för samhällskunskap som medborgarutbildande ämne ur ett literacy-perspektiv: En normativ intervjustudie på en F-9 skola2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis