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  • Olanås, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Brexit och den svenska vänstern: Socialdemokraternas, Vänsterpartiets och Miljöpartiets inställning till Storbritanniens utträde ur EU2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to examine how the Swedish parliamentary left viewed Brexit and its expected consequences. The standpoints concerning Brexit that were presented by the Social Democrats (S; SAP), the Left Party (V) and the Greens (MP) during the foreign policy debates of 2016 and 2017, and during eight of the consultations with the Committee on EU Affairs, from December 2015 to September 2016, are analysed. The actions of the three parties are explained with the help of the concepts politicization, programme realization, vote maximization and maximization of parliamentary influence. The standpoints are categorized using a qualitative text analysis. The conclusion is that the Social Democrats and the Greens had a negative attitude towards the United Kingdom leaving the EU, and they argued that the result of the referendum was a matter of regret. According to the Social Democrats and the Greens, Brexit meant that the EU had to start fulfilling the wishes of the citizens; otherwise the legitimacy of the union would be damaged even further. The Left Party neither approved nor disapproved of Brexit, but it did consider the event a historic opportunity to reform the EU. The analysis of the standpoints showed that Brexit couldn’t be classified as a politicized (contentious) question for the Swedish left. The actions of the Social Democrats are seen as an attempt to achieve all the strategic goals: programme realization, vote maximization and maximization of parliamentary influence. The Left Party prioritized vote maximization over the other goals, while the Greens prioritized maximization of parliamentary influence at the expense of programme realization.

  • Persson, Annie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Kreativt skapande i pianoundervisning: En kvalitativ undersökning av hur pianolärare på kulturskolan använder kreativt skapande i sin undervisning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore what creativity means to piano teachers at schools of culture and music, and how they consider themselves working creatively when teaching. This is performed by the following research questions: How do piano teachers see creativity in piano teaching? In what ways do they describe how they work with creativity in their teaching? What conditions do they consider is necessary to be able to work with creativity in piano teaching? This study is qualitative and a sociocultural perspective is used as a theoretical perspective. Qualitative interviews are used as research method, and four piano teachers have been interviewed.  The interviews has been transcribed and analysed through thematic analyse. In the result, the four teachers approach and working are being presented and divided into three main subjects: Piano teachers view of creativity, to work creatively in piano teaching, and conditions for a creative environment. The final chapter discusses the result, the theoretical perspective, the literature and the previous research.

  • Andréasson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Tekniskt sett: En självstudie av teknikövning på elgitarr2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine my own learning process and how my playing is affected when practicing guitar technique. I documented one practice session every week during the appointed practice period, using the help of video documentation. I also used a logbook as a compliment to document what happened during the learning process. A design theoretical perspective was used as a basis for the study. In the result section, I describe how I designed my practicing and what consequences this had for my playing. The use of many different types of resources for learning turned out to provide positive results. Over time I developed structure and accuracy in my practice. In the last section I discuss how my orchestration of resources created opportunities to practice guitar technique, and how this orchestration changed over time. I also discuss the importance to begin all practice in a pleasant tempo as well as the importance to practice with structure and accuracy.

  • Renberg, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Koalition eller kollision: En fallstudie om blocköverskridande koalitioner och den representativa demokratin i svensk kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The political scene in Swedish municipalities has recently had a dramatic change and the political system has become more fragmented with many new and local political parties. This increased fragmentation, together with a more apparent aspiration of a political majority in the municipalities, creates a situation where the forming of coalitions gets increasingly more difficult. After the 2014 elections, 101 bipartisan majorities were created, and now more than one third of the municipalities in the country consist of bipartisan coalitions.

    This is a qualitative essay based on personal interviews. The purpose of the essay is studying and understanding bipartisan coalitions in a Swedish municipality. The purpose is also to understand how politicians in municipalities reason with- and relate to representative democracy, and how it is effected by the bipartisan coalition.

    The result of the study shows that all of the politicians has a clear preference to the future and leans toward the conditions that the mandate model entails. The politicians do not focus a lot on previous work and responsibility. Instead, they view ideologies, values and election promises as most prominent. The bipartisan coalition has been very difficult for the parties involved, and it has caused severe consequences. There has been a lot of tension between the parties in the majority, and it has been most difficult to form policies that any of the parties are happy with.

  • Norin, Ellinor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Innovationsstrategier för samverkan: En komparativ fallstudie om aktörers samverkan i värmländska innovationsstödsystem utifrån ett policynätverksperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how cooperation between different actors should be amended and improved through the new strategy of innovation support system in Värmland. I am able to answer how the new strategy of the innovation support system are going to improve cooperation between actors through an analyse of policy network theory.  

    The study asks an overall question “How shall cooperation between several different actors be improved through the new strategy in the innovation support system?”. Following by three more concentrated questions: What are the motives to participation in the innovation support system in 2012 and 2017? How does the organisation of cooperation appear in the innovation support system in 2012 and 2017? What is the strategy for managing collaborations in the innovation support system in 2012 and 2017?

    The study has been fulfilled through document studies and interviews with representatives from the innovation support system. Analyses of the innovation support system in Värmland through policy network theory dividing the innovation support system into three categories: an actor level, an interaction level and a policy level. 

    The five priorities, called “smart specialisation”, are the characteristic areas in the VRIS3 strategy. Results are showing that “responsibility explanations” and Innovation Park are both new in VRIS3. The conclusions through policy network theory is that actors’ self-interests are the main motives to participate in the innovation support system. Knowledge, time and financial resources are the mainly resources. The VRIS3 is still in process but the common answer to question two and three is that Region Värmland have a leading role in the innovation support system. The purpose of the “responsibility explanations” is to clarify the roles of the actors, and Innovation Park have a central role in the innovation support system as a coordinator and is working as a unified meeting place. 

  • Pettersson Bergström, Fanny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    En positiv internationell Sverigebild - fantasi eller verklighet?: -En analys av hur bilden av Sverige förändrats över tid i amerikansk media2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Abstract

    Bachelor thesis in Political Science by Fanny Pettersson Bergström, spring term 2017.

    Supervisor: Sara Svensson.

    A Positive International Image of Sweden - Fantasy or Reality?

    -An Analysis of how the Image of Sweden has Changed over Time in American Media.

    This thesis is about the image of Sweden and the Swedish international brand and how these are communicated in the American media. The study is motivated by the increased debate about whether the international image of Sweden is positive or negative. The debate about the image of Sweden has enhanced partly because of the more common use of concepts like Nation Brand and Nation Branding which is becoming increasingly more important for states in a globalized world. The image of Sweden was further brought to attention in connection with the US President Donald Trump's statement about an unknown event in Sweden in February 2017, which created multiple headlines in the United States as well as in Sweden.

    The aim of the thesis is therefore to investigate whether the media in the United States convey a positive or negative image of Sweden in the years of 2011, 2014 and 2017. This partly to determine the current image of Sweden but also to gain understanding of whether the image of Sweden in the American media has changed over time. The essay also investigates what content can be derived from the image of Sweden during the years studied.

    The thesis consists of a two-step method where both parts form the basis for the analysis. The first step involves a quantitative content analysis where positive and negative words are searched for in articles about Sweden within the surveyed articles of each year. The second step is a qualitative discourse analysis where 16 articles were selected by randomly unbound selection to be read deeper for increased understanding of the image of Sweden from above mentioned years.

    The conclusions from the analysis is that there is great difficulty in categorizing the image of Sweden as positive or negative, it is considerably more complex and consists of both positive and negative aspects throughout all the years studied. In spite of this, the image of Sweden is somewhat more positive in 2014 and 2017 in comparison with 2011 where the image was perceived as more negative. Violence, crime, safety and equality can be said to be largely linked to the Swedish image in the US media over the years studied, also progressiveness as well as thoughtfulness. The result of the thesis contributes to an increased understanding of the international image of Sweden and how it can have effects on national Swedish politics.

    Keywords: Image of Sweden, Nation Branding, Media, Nation perception.

  • Johansson, Sofia
    Karlstad University.
    Konditionstest för beteendeförändring: En studie om vilken betydelse konditionstestet hos Friskvården i Värmland kan ha för beteendeförändring2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of a sample of people taking part in the activities of Friskvården i Värmland with regards to their completed cycle fitness tests. The study seeks to answer the questions: Why did the interviewees choose to perform the cycle fitness test at Friskvården i Värmland? How do the interviewees feel that their completed cycle fitness tests affect their motivation to go through a behavioral change? The method used for the gathering of the data was qualitative scientific interviews made separately with each interviewee. The group of interviewees consisted of seven people.

     

    The results of the study showed that some of the interviewees wanted to perform the cycle fitness test to assess their current level of fitness. Others meant that they performed the cycle fitness test because of health related matters. That is, to assess their current level of fitness and put it in perspective to their health.  The results also showed that all of the interviewees were motivated by the cycle fitness test in their behavioral change but to varying degrees. The interviewees appreciated the clear assessment of their fitness that they got from the test. It made it easier to monitor their development as they changed their behaviour. Some found it motivational to try to beat their previous score. All though the test probably would not have been as effective if it had not been accompanied by the health interview, also performed at Friskvården i Värmland. The interviewees meant that these have different but complementing functions and they are both perceived as necessary in their behavioral change. 

  • Carlsson, Angelica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Från Reagan till Trump: Populistiska uttryck inom det republikanska partiet 1980–20172017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From Reagan to Trump: Populist expressions within the Republican Party 1980–2017 is a bachelor thesis by Angelica Carlsson. The aim of the thesis is to explain populist expressions within the Republican Party in the United States during the period 1980–2017. Populist expressions in political speeches by the presidents Ronald Reagan, George W. Bush and Donald Trump are investigated and graded based on Kirk A. Hawkin's criteria of populism. The thesis is also taking the theoretical terms thin and thick populism into consideration. In order to explain the populist expressions the historical context and the historical development of the Republican Party is taken into account.

    The main findings of the thesis is that Reagan's and Trump's speeches has the highest degree of populist expressions, while Bush's speeches has a lower degree of populist expressions. The study explains this from the historical context, where 1980 and 2016 were characterized by more political instability than 2000. The study illustrates how populism does not arise from nothing and should be understood in relation to the historical context.

  • Fridner, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    "Den som flyr har inget val, ingen människa är illegal": En kritisk diskursanalys över hur konstruktionen av flyktingbegreppet i politik och media förändrats över tid2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper, " There is nothing illegal about a person, being forced to flee " - A critical discourse analysis of how the construction of refugee concepts in politics and media has changed over time deals with how refugees as concept have been construced in the refugee political discourse in government / parliament and how Dagens Nyheter makes refugees in it Refugee policy discourse for two different periods. As a theory and method, a critical discourse analysis is used to find out whether refugees are presented as a load or resource, and if so, how and who are charged or they become a resource. The analysis shows that the view of refugees in the parliament is that they are to a large extent the burden for Sweden and the Swedish population during both periods. Refugees have been produced as a threat both economically and socially. During the latter of the two periods, they were also produced as a threat to the country and the people's security. The petition that existed in the goverment and the parliament was reflected in Dagens Nyheter's articles in both periods.

  • Lindbäck, Emma
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Rosch, Simone
    Karlstad University.
    Preoperativa uppvärmningsmetoder - En systematiskt litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Jakobsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Wallberg, Kristina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Kartläggning av avvikelse–rapportering avseendevårdskador, tillbud och risk för vårdskador i samband med kirurgiska ingrepp2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Inom svensk hälso- och sjukvård drabbas årligen en stor mängd patienter av undvikbara skador. Det åligger operationssjuksköterskans att ge god och patientsäker perioperativ omvårdnad. Enligt lag är operationssjuksköterskor skyldiga att rapportera risk för och uppkomna vårdskador. Studier visar på att här finns ett stort mörkertal i rapporteringen.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att kartlägga omfattningen av avvikelserapportering avseende vårdskador, tillbud och risk för vårdskador i samband med kirurgiska ingrepp samt vilka typer av vårdskador som hade rapporterats.

    Metod: Studien var en retrospektiv observationsstudie med kvantitativ ansats. Material erhölls från ett webbaserat register mellan åren 20070101 – 20161231.

    Resultat: 54 avvikelser inkluderades och resultatet visade att det skrivs få avvikelser avseende vårdskador och risk för vårdskador. Åtta grupper avseende vårdskador, tillbud och risk för vårdskador identifierades vilka var positionering, brist i följsamhet till rutiner, brännskada, fel på material, drapering, borttappat material, blödning och dödsfall.

    Konklusion: För att minska antalet vårdskador behöver verksamheterna öka medvetenheten och kunskapen kring vårdkultur och patientsäkerhetsfrågor samt arbeta aktivt med rutiner och förbättringsåtgärder

  • Bexell, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Ulvegard, Agnes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Patientkännedom i den perioperativa vården: En intervjustudie med operationssjuksköterskor2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The operating room nurse is responsible for a good and safe perioperative care. Preoperative person-centered information is a prerequisite to meet the patient´s unique needs and promote continuity of care. The patient´s individual risk factors are essential for the operating room nurse to know in order to prevent hospital acquired injuries and to accomplish safe perioperative care.

    Aim: The aim was to describe operating room nurses´ experiences of obtaining information to create knowledge of the patient in perioperative care.

    Method: A qualitative study with an inductive approach was conducted. Ten operating room nurses at a hospital in Sweden were interviewed. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was chosen as the method of data analysis.

    Result: Two generic categories emerged: Read written information about the patient and The preoperative meeting with the patient. These generic categories together form the main category Prerequisite for person-centered and safe perioperative care. The generic category Read written information about the patient includes the subcategories To acquire basic knowledge and To prioritize and to seize opportunities. The generic category The preoperative meeting with the patient includes the subcategories To meet and talk with the patient and To create conditions for conversation.

    Conclusion: The findings contribute to a deeper knowledge of what is essential to know about the patient in perioperative care and why this is important information, from the operating room nurse´s perspective. Both written information and a preoperative meeting with the patient are required to create prerequisite for person-centered and safe perioperative care. The results indicate a need of change in the way of working to enable good knowledge of each patient, and thereby increase patient safety in perioperative care.

  • Eriksson, Rebecka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Det var ett riktigt lyft att börja här.”: - En kvalitativ studie om sociala relationers betydelse på en arbetsmarknadsavdelning i Värmland.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att få en större förståelse över hur de som deltar på en arbetsmarknadsavdelning i Värmland påverkas av relationerna som etableras på arbetsplatsen samt vilken betydelse en sysselsättning har för arbetslösa. Undersökningen riktades till deltagare, assisterande handledare samt ordinarie handledare och genomfördes via halvstrukturerade livsvärldsintervjuer. Mina frågeställningar var om de upplever en ökad arbetsmotivation av relationerna samt vilka relationer det finns på avdelningen.  Fem assisterande handledare, en deltagare och två ordinarie handledare intervjuades till studien.

     

    Studien utgår från en emotionssociologisk ansats och jag har därför valt att analysera olika emotioner som förknippas med relationer samt att arbeta på en arbetsmarknadsavdelning. Teorierna som jag har tillämpat är socialt stöd, krav/kontroll/stöd-modellen, skam och stolthet, Goffmans (2004) främre och bakre regioner, humor, målstyrning, arbetsdelning, arbetsmotivation, yttre, inre och sociala incitament. Samtliga av de åtta respondenter upplevde att relationerna har en betydelse för arbetsmotivationen, relationerna kan hjälpa individerna att komma iväg till arbetsplatsen. Respondenterna upplevde svårigheter att definiera sina emotioner till följd av relationer men min analys visade att det är goda relationer som etableras på avdelningen.

     

    Resultatet av studien visar att det finns en skillnad i arbetsmotivation mellan deltagare samt assisterande handledare. Min avsikt var inte att undersöka detta men det blev så tydligt i mitt material och det är något man kan undersöka i senare forskning. Samtliga var även överens om att avdelningen har förändrat individernas beteende och tankesätt när det gäller ett arbete. 

  • Andersson, Pernilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    När kunden inte ser: En sociologisk studie om tågpersonals emotionella arbete2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in emotional labor has increased due to the development of norms that service workers always should be nice and fond have increased. Research in this area exhibit both negative consequences in form of burnouts and positive in form of an increased understanding in other people. The aim of the study was to create an understanding of how a couple of train conductors experience their work in relation to the feelings, roles and relationships that surround them. The study is based on four qualitative interviews that have been analysed with emotion and interaction oriented theories. The results show that the use of emotions was common in the profession and the respondents of the study claim to act a role which they adapt to the customers’ expectations. These expectations can sometimes end up in a conflict between the professional role and the private role where the own feelings and respect weights more than the adaption to the customers’ expectations. The respondents in the study were found to have created different strategies, open and hidden, that can be used in order to get the customer to be notified of their behavior as well as it works to manage the emotional labor. The results also show how the colleagues and the opportunity to go away and discuss difficult customer meetings are important factors when it comes to relate to the emotional labor. Overall, there is room to affect the emotional labor which also been proven to be beneficial for the job satisfaction.

  • Shariati, Masoud
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    En hälsofrämjande arbetsplats: En kvalitativ studie om hur anställda på ett HVB-hem upplever sin arbetsplats2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Matsson, Carl Philip
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Securing Microsoft Azure: Automatic Access Control List Rule Generation to Secure Microsoft Azure Cloud Networks2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Juhlin, Charlotta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    En sjukdomskris blir hanterbar: En kvalitativ studie om hur individer som drabbats av hjärt-och hjärnsjukdomar tänker runt sin sjukdomshistoria och rehabilitering2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: To suffer from heart or brain diseases at the age of 30 to 49 can create an existential life crisis. Existence is experienced as chaotic, stressful and challenging.Life after the disease can create physical and mental complications that need to be treated. Objectives based on own values and perceived skills motivate action. People need different kind of support in order to find life comprehensible, manageable and meaningful.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore how people at the age of 30 to 49 have experienced their medical history and rehabilitation.

    Method: For the study, a qualitative design was chosen in which interviews were conducted with eight people, both men and women. The data collection consisted of semistructured interviews and was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Three categories emerged from the analysis: Individual-level factors (1) containing the subcategories 'health literacy' and 'life values'; Support from the environment (2) containing "care", "coach" and "professional care"; Live in new reality (3) containing "stress and brain fatigue", "identity", "feelings and thoughts as guiding" and "return to work". One theme emerged from the interviews, "Bodily and mental symptoms need to be looked after so that positive energy can be released into meaningful activities." The categories show important obstacles and opportunities that affect health-promoting rehabilitation work.

    Conclusion: There is a need for knowledge and coaching support in rehabilitation based on the individual's unique life situation in order to experience greater empowerment and increased health. The professional adviser needs a holistic approach towards health care and rehabilitation. The findings shows that further research about professional support is valuable both from a societal and individual perspective.

    Keywords Coping, Crisis, Empowerment, Health promotion, Sense of coherence 

  • Andersson, Ricky
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Classification of Video Traffic: An Evaluation of Video Traffic Classification using Random Forests and Gradient Boosted Trees2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic classification is important for Internet providers and other organizations to solve some critical network management problems.The most common methods for traffic classification is Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) and port based classification. These methods are starting to become obsolete as more and more traffic are being encrypted and applications are starting to use dynamic ports and ports of other popular applications. An alternative method for traffic classification uses Machine Learning (ML).This ML method uses statistical features of network traffic flows, which solves the fundamental problems of DPI and port based classification for encrypted flows.The data used in this study is divided into video and non-video traffic flows and the goal of the study is to create a model which can classify video flows accurately in real-time.Previous studies found tree-based algorithms to work well in classifying network traffic. In this study random forest and gradient boosted trees are examined and compared as they are two of the best performing tree-based classification models.Random forest was found to work the best as the classification speed was significantly faster than gradient boosted trees. Over 93% correctly classified flows were achieved while keeping the random forest model small enough to keep fast classification speeds.

  • Boije, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Digitalisering i svenskundervisning i gymnasieskolan: En studie om lärares användande av digitala redskap i svenskundervisningen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how teacher in Sweden work with digitization in their teaching and what tools and methods are used. In addition, the opportunities and challenges the teachers perceive to use digital tools in the teaching are reported. The study parts from a sociocultural theory. To fulfill its purpose the study is based on how teachers in the Swedish subject work to achieve a digital education and how attitudes affect to integrate digital tools. For the data collecting process semistructured qualitative interviews have been used as method. Four Swedish teachers were interviewed in the ages between 30 and 60 who are active in the upper secondary school. The results show that digital awareness among the teachers varies. The younger generation is usually more aware than the older generation. The older teacher declares herself as being quite digitally unconscious and finds that it depends on generational difference, knowledge and interest. As a result her teaching is not based on digital awareness. The younger teachers, in particular those with more professional experience, have a high degree of digital awareness. This shows in continually acquiring digital knowledge on their own, trying new methods and constantly trying to develop the digital education. The youngest teacher with least professional experience has good digital awareness but not the interest, knowledge and time to integrate digitalization into her teaching. All the interviewed teachers have in common that they find the work towards a digital teaching challenging and that none of them had much, if any, education in digital studies in their university studies. 

  • Johansson, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Användningav spill vid produktion av ullprodukter: Utveckling av produkter som tar vara på spillmaterial2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a Bachelor Theisis of Science in Innovation and Design, conducted by Elin Johansson. The examination project was carried out for Klippan Yllefabrik AB and the work have been directed towards textile recycling with Pernilla Roos as task manager.

    When producing blankets and throws Klippan Yllefabrik AB have waste material. The projects main point was to generate a solution on how to use the waste material. The solution shall give the company the possibility to use the waste material instead of throwing it away.

    The work in the project are based out of the designprocess which starts off with a big preliminary study. The preliminary study included mapping trends in the interior- and textile industry, survey of the client's range and what would fit into the current range. Research on textile industry, textile recycling and its development was also included in the preliminary study as it gives a great insight into what is done with textiles being thrown or recycled.

    The chosen concept was presented through full-scale models.

  • Grahn Vera Gajardo, Jannette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. 6406282787.
    ”Man vill ha bekräftelse på att allt rullar åt rätt håll” - En intervjustudie om föräldrars upplevelse av 3-års teambesöket på BVC i Värmland2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föräldrarnas levnadsvanor kan vara avgörande för hur barnets framtida levnadsvanor kommer att se ut och är därför väsentliga ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv.

     

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka de värmländska föräldrarnas upplevelse av 3-års teambesök på barnavårdscentralerna (BVC) i Värmland. Teambesöket, där både barnhälsovårdsläkare och barnhälsovårdssjuksköterska träffar föräldrarna tillsammans har som syfte att prata om levnadsvanor med alla föräldrar ur ett hälsofrämjande perspektiv som innebär att utgå från faktorer som bidrar till att främja och bevara hälsan.

     

     

    För att svara på syftet användes kvalitativ induktiv metod. Urvalet, tio föräldrar, var strategiskt och kompletterades med ett bekvämlighetsurval. Datainsamlingen skedde genom intervjuer som spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys metod. Resultatet från denna studie visar att upplevelsen av 3-års teambesöket på BVC i Värmland skiljer sig åt avseende personalens bemötande. Faktorer som avgjorde upplevelse av ”det goda mötet” berodde inte endast på BVC-personalens tidsbrist utan upplevelsen påverkades också av förhållningssättet, innefattande struktur och arbetssätt på teambesöket. Det var viktigt för en positiv upplevelse att känna att alla blev delaktiga i ett samtal som inte är utpekande och som kan ge möjlighet till reflektion samt bekräftelse på att man som förälder gör rätt.  Det är dessa aspekter som leder till att föräldrarna känner sig stärkta i sitt föräldraskap. Föräldrarna upplevde levnadsvanefrågor som viktiga likaså uppföljningen av BVC samt att tilliten till BVC:s arbete med att övervaka och följa upp barns hälsa var stark.

     

    Mot bakgrund av studiens resultat föreslås åtgärder för att förbättra struktur, samarbete och roller på teambesöket på BVC i Värmland.

  • Gustavsson, Pauline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Alla har en gnista inom sig, men vad krävs för att väcka den?: En tematisk studie om hur svensklärare arbetar med ökandet av motivation i skönlitteraturundervisningen på gymnasiet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fiction is a central part of the subject plan for high school but reading among young people decreases, according to surveys. This study focuses on how Swedish teachers, at high school level, use motivational work within reading related assignments during Swedish courses. The study therefore intends to investigate the different motivational factors based on fiction, which Swedish teachers work with, in the educational context and how these factors can be increased. The result has been obtained through a thematic analysis based on the chosen method, interviews. Previous research claims that there is no comprehensive approach when analyzing motivational work. The choice was there for made to apply four different theories in the discussion within the outcome of the interviews. The factors identified by the thematic analysis were:

    1. The factors that increase the motivation of students based on reading fiction are that the teaching is individualized, that there are clear instructions and that the teaching is authenticated.2. The possibilities the teachers can read that increase the students' motivation for fictional reading is the teacher's way of working, how they present reading and the teacher's personality. 3. How teachers work with motivation in the classroom is that they implement reading plans, reading aloud, competitions, work with reading strategies and they also attach great importance to the group's motivation to each other.

    The result from the interviews reviled that the teachers did not always have a foundation in previous research and proven experiences in the work of motivation. It’s essential to apply individual adaptation in the educational context affecting fiction.

  • Lundgren Kullgren, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Elevers upplevda delaktighet: En populationsbaserad studie av elevers delaktighet i skolmiljön och deras självskattade hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Individuals' participation and ability to influence their life situation are often highlighted in health-promotion. Research supports that school success is a protective factor for maintaining good mental health. Pupils' ability to participate and influence their school situation are factors that promote both learning and health. The participation of children and pupils are an important part of the work on human rights and in 2018 the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is expected to be adopted as a Swedish law.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a link between pupils ' perceived participation in the school situation and their health, as well as to shed light on what factors in a school situation which had significance for perceived participation.

     Method: The study was conducted as a quantitative cross-sectional study of data from the health data base, ELSA. Correlation analysis was made with " included and be allowed to decide" towards the pupil's school situation, relationships, self-image, risk behavior and perceived health. All correlation analyses were done with the chi-squared test, significant were < 0.05.

     Results: The results showed that pupils ' perceived participation had a statistical significant relation with school situation, relationships, self-image, risk behavior and perceived health. Pupils with low participation indicated a lower degree of calm to study, they were less satisfied with their school work, had fewer friends in school and experienced to a lesser extent that adults were friendly. The experience of low participation had a strong correlation with mental ill health. It was more than twice as many with perceived low participation, among both boys and girls, who felt sad and worried.

    Conclusion: This study highlights how central pupils ' perceived participation is for their health and life situation, although the causal relationship cannot be demonstrated. To systematically strengthen pupils’ participation is a health promotion approach that also can improve the school's ability to meet its compensatory mandates. That is, the school system must meet each pupil's individual needs and compensate for what the pupil may need to complete his or her studies.

  • Troedsson, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Projektmedlemmars psykosociala arbetsmiljö2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om projektmedlemmars upplevelser av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Psykosocial arbetsmiljö skapas av faktorer i arbetsmiljön som inte har ett fysiskt framträdande, utan kan exempelvis röra sig om relationer i arbetet och vilka arbetsuppgifter man har (Eklöf 2017).

    Tidigare studier har riktat fokus på projektledares psykosociala arbetsmiljö och inte projektmedlemmars. Det finns därför ett område som tycks vara tämligen outforskat, nämligen att belysa projektmedlemmars upplevelser av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Som utgångspunkt har vi valt Karasek och Theorells (1990) krav-kontroll- och stödmodell som är en vanligt förekommande undersökningsmodell inom området psykosocial arbetsmiljö. Vi undersöker även hur karaktärsdrag i projekt påverkar den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Innan undersökningens början hade vi en förförståelse om att karaktärsdragen påverkar upplevelser av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön.

    Studien är baserad på kvalitativ metod med den semistrukturerade intervjuformen. Sammanlagt har fyra intervjuer genomförts och urvalet är projektmedlemmar som tillhör en och samma organisation inom servicebranschen.

    Resultatet visar att arbetskraven bland projektmedlemmarna är höga, medan graden av egenkontroll varierar. Det visar sig också att graden av egenkontroll har stor betydelse för projektmedlemmarnas upplevelser av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Något som tycks påverka graden av egenkontroll är främst moderorganisationens struktur och relationen till resursägare. Vidare tycks det sociala stödet bland projektmedlemmar vara tillfredsställande inom projektets ramar, men att det kan vara bristande i relation till moderorganisation och resursägare, vilket upplevs påfrestande.

    Sammanfattningsvis tycks den psykosociala arbetsmiljön bland projektmedlemmarna präglas av höga arbetskrav och varierande grad av egenkontroll och socialt stöd. Vad gäller karaktärsdrag i projekt och dess påverkan på psykosocial arbetsmiljö visar de sig ha stor betydelse för projektmedlemmarnas hantering av de höga arbetskraven.

  • Toivanen, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Munhygiensvanor och kunskap om oral hälsa hos vuxna individer med utländsk bakgrund: En enkätstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att undersöka munhygiensvanor och kunskaper kring oral hälsa hos vuxna individer med utländsk bakgrund. Frågeställning: Finns det någon skillnad mellan män och kvinnors egenvårdsvanor samt kunskaper kring oral hälsa? Metod: Kvantitativ studie. Empirisk enkätstudie. Enkäten omfattar frågor om munhygienvanor, kunskap om karies och kunskap om parodontit. Urvalet bestod av vuxna män och kvinnor som har en utländsk bakgrund och är över 18 års ålder. Med utländsk bakgrund menas att individerna är födda utomlands och har utländska föräldrar. Studiedeltagarna befann sig på en SFI skola i Mellansverige. Resultat: Antal studiedeltagare som deltog i studien var 78, (n=36 män), (n=29 kvinnor), (n=13 som inte angav kön). Majoriteten av studiedeltagarna visade sig ha goda vanor med antalet gånger de borstar tänderna per dag, hur ofta de använder fluor och användning av orala munhygiensprodukter utöver tandborste. Studien visar även att en mindre del av studiedeltagarna känner de största riskfaktorerna för att få orala sjukdomar. Konklusion: De flesta individer med utländsk bakgrund har bra munhygiensvanor men har saknar tillräcklig kunskap kring varför man får orala sjukdomar som karies och parodontit.

  • Hjortsfeldt, Fanny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    När orden blir mer än ord.: En kvalitativ studie om läsförståelse och läsförståelsestrategier2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study aimed at studying how teachers work with reading strategies to develop students' reading comprehension in middle school. To investigate this, two methods have been used, an observation was conducted first and then an interview with the individual teachers. Four teachers with different work experience have participated in the study. The results obtained by the study is that reading comprehension is an important part of acquiring new knowledge. An important part of developing students' reading comprehension is to continuously work throughout the school with different texts and provide students with tools in the form of reading comprehension strategies that they can apply. The study presents the models, Reciprocal Teaching, Transactional Strategies Instruction, Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction and Questioning the Author as all four are developed methods that can be used in conjunction with reading. An important aspect that is addressed in the study is how teachers work with students who have a weaker reading comprehension, they adapt the teaching based on individual needs. The study also shows that an important factor for pupils' development is that teachers have knowledge and skills about how to work to develop students' reading comprehension.

  • Andersson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Undervisning i läsförståelsestrategier och genrer i de lägre årskurserna: Hur explicit är och bör den vara?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis focuses on teaching in reading comprehension strategies and genre knowledge. The study is based on research that shows that education in these areas is important for students' development of reading comprehension. Reading comprehension in itself is the basis for future knowledge acquisition and further studies. The purpose of this study is to investigate how teachers, active in the range from pre-school classes to third grade classes, works explicitly with reading comprehension strategies and genre knowledge. 

    The research is based on a web-questionnaire survey of all teachers for current grades in the subjects Swedish, Mathematics, Social studies and Science/Technology. It is limited to investigating a municipality in southern Sweden. 

    The results are coherent in such a way that the majority of teachers asked consider themselves to educate explicitly in reading comprehension strategies. Slightly fewer participants consider themselves to educate explicitly in genre knowledge. Also, based on the answers given by the participants, it turns out that both reading comprehension strategies and genre skills are less taught in this municipality compare to what is recommended according to science. 

  • Salomonsson, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Exploring NAT Host Counting Using Network Traffic Flows2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Rust, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Testsystem för processtyring2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med det här arbetet var att implementera och bygga ett komplett testsystem för reglering som efterfrågades av företaget Prevas AB i Karlstad. De önskade ett testsystem som reglerar en vattentemperatur som de kan använda på kontoret för att genomföra egna tester, analyser samt lära nyanställda medarbetare mer om automation. Testsystemet har även ett tillhörande HMI (Machine Human Interface) som användaren styr regleringen ifrån.

    Regleringen i testsystemet använder PID(Proportional–integral–derivative)-reglering och är inställd med lambdametoden. PID-reglering är den vanligaste använda metoden inom tillverkningsindustrin för reglering, men trots det är det många av dagens PID-regleringar som underpresterar. En anledning är slitage i mekaniska ställdonen som finns i processerna. För att utvärdera att testsystemet fungerar samt för att visa vad det kan användas till, har en mindre analys av ett mekaniskt ställdon genomförts, där antalet tillslag för ett ställdon i det byggda systemet undersökts.

    Testsystemet som byggdes uppfyller de krav som ställts från Prevas och de är nöjda med resultatet. Analysen som genomfördes visade att testsystemet fungerade och kan användas till den typen av test. Analysen i sig visade att simulationen som implementerats i testsystemet inte fungerade som den skulle och därmed är några testresultat ogiltiga.

    Rapporten presenterar hur ett testsystem för reglering kan implementeras och sedan vad det kan användas till.

  • Lidström, Wilhelm
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Konceptframtagning av bas-högtalare för utbyggnadsbart ljudsystem: Produktutveckling med ett styrt formspråk och användaren i fokus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sound Dimension ämnar att starta upp utvecklingen av nästa produkt till deras varumärke aiFi. Idag är aiFi en smart högtalare som när flera placeras tillsammans skapar ett utbyggnadsbart ljudsystem. Sound Dimension söker nu nästa produkt till aiFi familjen och vill ha hjälp att ta fram ett koncept för denna. I kombination med utveckling av det nya konceptet vill de även ha hjälp med att identifiera problem kring användandet av dagens produkt och få förslag på hur dessa kan förbättras.

     

    I rapporten behandlas produktutvecklingsprocessen av ett nytt koncept i kombination med användarstudier och implementering av förändringar i ett redan styrt formspråk. Projektet är ett examensarbete vid Karlstads universitet för högskoleingenjörsprogrammet i innovationsteknik och design, MSGC12. Projektet motsvarar 22.5hp och utförs vid fakulteten hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap. Rapporten är skriven av Wilhelm Lidström, handledare industridesigner Kristina Gullander och examinator professor Leo De Vin.

     

    Under processen har skiss och modellarbete använts flitigt för att dokumentera processen och för att testa och visualisera olika idéer. Modeller har byggts både för att verifiera former och proportioner samt testa funktioner. Det slutliga konceptet presenteras i skiss, 3D-format med renderade bilder samt i form av en enkel fysisk prototyp.

     

    Det slutliga konceptet utgår från att uppfylla den kravspecifikation som framkommit under projektet. Kravspecifikationen har skapats utifrån de krav och önskemål uppdragsgivaren hade på projektet, samt en gedigen förstudie innehållande en litteraturstudie kring intressanta områden projektet berör. Ett stort antal intervjuer genomförs med fokus på hur dagens produkt uppfattas och användarvänligheten, både utifrån befintliga användare och personer som aldrig tidigare varit i kontakt med produkten för att få en så bred bild som möjligt av uppfattningen om dagens produkt.

     

    Resultatet är ett koncept med en form och storlek som gör den kompatibel med dagens produkt. Manöverpanelen har fått en ny position och ett förenklat gränssnitt vilket gör produkten tydligare både ur ett semantisktpersketiv och användarsynpunkt.

  • Provender, Felicia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    eHälsa som stöd till bättre kost- och träningsvanor vid hjärtkärlsjukdom: En fallstudie om vårdens stöd till hjärtkärlpatienter idag och patientupplevelser av att använda ett digitalt hälsoverktyg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study research about eHealth, its usage in health care and the motivation theories Transtheoretical model, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the self-determinant theory is processed. The study is also presenting results from personal observations on how the health care supports patients with cardiovascular disease to better habits and an interview with a follow-up on how a PCI-patient is experiencing receiving eating and exercising recommendations through a digital health tool.

     

    The purpose of the case study is to find out how the health care supports patients with cardiovascular disease to better eating and exercising habits, and if digital health tools can increase the experienced motivation to eat better and exercise more.

     

    The methods that have been used are qualitative, and the results are based on observations of the work with patients who have cardiovascular disease, conducted at a physiotherapist’s office and an interview with a follow-up with a PCI-patient who used a digital health tool for ten days.

     

    The main result of this study indicates that some kind of support is essential to feeling able to start and make a process of change. The motivation seems to increase through social support or other support which contributes to higher competence and self-determination. The patient felt more motivated by always having the information easily accessible, the fact that the tool was customizable to his own needs and that it gave him inspiration and knowledge.

     

    The patient began to eat better and take daily walks on his own. Previously he had ”forgotten” and preferred to drive to town just to walk together with other people rather than just walking by himself. The patient also describes an improved self-confidence and has a more positive vision of the future.

     

    However, this needs testing in a larger scale to be able to express whether it could effect a majority, and if these effects would be permanent. Nevertheless, an openness for the future should exist regarding eHealth tools to work as a support, to be informative and perhaps even motivating when needed.

  • Lindahl, Sofie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Johansson Eld, Ronja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Utformningen av sanktionssystemet vid varumärkesintrång: En reparativ eller preventiv funktion?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varumärkesrätten är i ständig utveckling, i och med att nya behov på marknaden uppstår kan allt mer också utgöra ett varumärke. Till följd av att nya varumärken uppstår och därmed även ny teknik, ökar också möjligheten att göra varumärkesintrång. Sanktionera inom varumärkesrätten blir allt viktigare och detta faktum motiverar uppsatsens undersökningsobjekt. Uppsatsens mening är att få en utökad förståelse för hur sanktionssystemet fungerar, men också huruvida varumärkesrättens sanktionssystem uppfyller en reparativ eller preventiv funktion. I och med det nya Varumärkesdirektivet (2015/2436) och att kravet på grafisk återgivning blivit mer teknikneutral så kan allt som uppfyller kraven för varumärkesregistrering utgöra ett varumärke. Uppsatsen ska därmed söka klargöra vad det nya varumärkesdirektivet (2015/2436) kommer innebära gällande sanktioner vid skyddade varumärken.  

    För att ett varumärkesintrång ska anse föreligga finns det flera kriterier som det ska tas hänsyn till. För det första så krävs det att varumärkena är förväxlingsbara med varandra, en bedömning ska göras för hur stor varuslagslikhet som finns samt hur stor märkeslikhet som föreligger. Huvudregeln är att både varuslags- och märkeslikhet ska föreligga för att ett varumärkesintrång ska anses ha skett. Det krävs en helhetsbedömning i vart enskilt fall.

    Sanktionssystemet har till syfte att underlätta för en rättighetsinnehavare att skydda sitt varumärke och även möjlighet att ingripa mot olovligt intrång. Problematiken kring detta tycks inte ligga i att sanktionssystemet är otillräckligt utvecklat. Utan problemet tycks vara att rättighetsinnehavare inte vill utreda intrånget i den omfattning som krävs och att det saknas riktlinjer från tidigare avgöranden. Detta beror på att kostnaderna är allt för höga i förhållande till skadeståndets storlek.  Det finns även en rädsla, från rättighetsinnehavare, för att domstolen utdömer ett otillräckligt skadestånd som innebär att kostnaderna för rättegången utjämnas i och med det låga skadeståndet. Det verkar även föreligga en rädsla hos domstolen att överkompensera den skadelidande.

    Enligt förarbeten till varumärkeslagen ska påföljderna vid varumärkesintrång både verka reparativ och preventivt. Vad som borde anses vara mest lämpligt för rättighetsinnehavaren är om dessa två kunde kombineras och sammansvetsas bättre. Problemet som kvarstår är att detta inte sker i praktiken utan det är oftast det reparativa syftet som påvisas genom praxis.

    Det nya varumärkesdirektivet (2015/2436) kommer troligtvis klargöra rättsläget gällande vad som kan utgöra ett varumärke och vad som kan skyddas genom sin ensamrätt. Däremot kommer troligtvis inte direktivet klargöra rättsläget för varumärkesintrångets påföljder. För att skadeståndsbestämmelserna i varumärkeslagen ska fullgöra sitt syfte krävs det en större ansträngning av den skadelidande gällande att presentera underlag. Vidare krävs det fler vägledande avgöranden från domstolen som påvisar skadeståndets syfte. 

  • Myrén, Josefine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Orebjörk, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Leasing: Ett lönsamt finansieringsalternativ eller en kostsam fälla?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Leasing är idag ett erkänt finansieringsalternativ och är en typ av långtidshyra. Det har blivit allt vanligare att leasa, framförallt för privatpersoner, och då leasing är ett oreglerat område anser vi att det är viktigt att belysa de problem som kan uppstå i ett leasingförhållande. Uppsatsen har vi försökt bygga upp som ett leasingförhållande, där vi beskriver dels vad som bör beaktas vid ingående av leasingavtal, vilka avtalsvillkor som kan vara speciellt betungande för kunden samt vad kunden vid en tvist har för möjligheter att få avtalsvillkor i ett leasingavtal jämkade eller ogiltigförklarade. Vi har valt att utforma uppsatsen på detta sätt för att vi vill upplysa främst konsumenter som är eller kommer bli kund i ett leasingförhållande. Vi vill främst upplysa om hur ett leasingavtal och dess villkor kan se ut och vad som bör beaktas vid avtalets ingående då vi sett att det kan uppstå problem för konsumenter.Vi har valt att även se till den nordiska rätten för att undersöka vilka likheter och skillnader som förekommer och hur det svenska rättsläget har utvecklats jämfört med dessa länder. Vi har under vår undersökning av nordiskt material sett att några större skillnader lagstiftningsmässigt inte föreligger, däremot skiljer det sig vad gäller ambitionen att försöka reglera området. I Norge och Danmark har de kommit betydligt längre vad gäller reglering av ett mer jämlikt avtalsförhållande. Här har det tillsatts exempelvis utredningar och kommittéer som har haft som uppgift att ta fram standardavtal med avtalsvillkor som är skäliga för såväl leasegivaren som leasetagaren i ett leasingförhållande. Standardavtalsvillkoren används i dessa länder av leasingföretag och kunden kan i större utsträckning vara tryggare och lita på att denne ingått ett avtal som inte kommer vara till skada.Eftersom leasing är ett område där lagstiftning saknas och som i Sverige inte alls är reglerat, anser vi att detta bidrar till en osäkerhet för leasingkunderna. Denna osäkerhet beror på att det marknaden styr utvecklingen gällande alla villkor och sedvanor inom branschen. Vi anser även att då praxis som rör konsumentleasing saknas har marknaden och de enskilda leasingbolagen ett rejält övertag på området. Dessutom har vi vid granskande av avtalsvillkor från olika bilfirmor insett att företagen ibland tar sig stora friheter med både friskrivningsklausuler och andra betungande avtalsvillkor.Efter analyserande av läget anser vi att det bör vidtas åtgärder på området som ökar säkerheten för kunder som ska ingå ett leasingavtal, främst för konsumenter.

  • Persson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lindstedt, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Okonventionella varumärken: Ett decennium senare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Trademarks represent an important feature for manufacturers and are widely used to

    individualize the company's products and services and distinguish themselves from their

    competitors. Due to the technological development that has taken place in today's society,

    many manufacturers choose to present their brands in new ways and through different digital

    channels that have not been used in the past. This means that new types of trademarks have

    developed on the market, such as shape, color, scent and sound. These new types are called

    unconventional trademarks.

    So far, there has been a requirement that the mark should be graphically represented in

    order to be registered as a trademark. The requirement of graphic representation has meant

    that the mark can be perceived visually and can be reproduced on paper. This has created

    difficulties for certain types of unconventional trademarks, for example scent that can’t be

    perceived visually and is problematic to reproduce clearly on paper. Due to the adoption of

    the new trademarkregulation and the new trademarkdirective, the requirement of graphic

    representation has been removed and the representation should now take place in appropriate

    form rather than graphic.

    The purpose of the essay is to investigate how the legal situation has changed for the

    unconventional trademarks's ability to register in the last decade. We ́ve analysed how the

    new trademarkregulation and the new trademarkdirective will affect the possibility of

    registering unconventional trademarks in the EU and in Sweden. We have also investigated

    the problems with registration of unconventional trademarks, which problems will be

    eliminated due to the changes, the problems that will persist and the new problems that may

    arise and how they should be addressed.

    The result we’ve achieved is that the biggest development that has occurred regarding the

    possibility of registering unconventional trademarks is that the requirement of graphic

    representation has been removed. This leads to general improvements for most types of

    unconventional trademarks when the regulation is made technologically neutral and the

    representation can be done in a way that fits the current mark. A problem that will persist is

    how the scope of protection for unconventional trademarks should be assessed, as this is not

    further discussed in the new regulation or the new directive.

    We’ve found that there is a need for a statement from the legislator or from the European

    Court of Justice to clarify what is considered appropriate for registration as a trademark. With

    the changes that increase the possibilities for registration of unconventional trademarks, we

    consider it important to clarify to the manufacturers what marks that can and should be

    registered as trademarks.

  • Fryxelius, Jonathan
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Runeson, Johannes
    Beacone: En ny BLE beacon med Wi-Fi-stöd för uppdatering av URL2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the invention of the radio, wireless communication has been the goal for modern technology. Despite 100 years of technological development, radio waves remain highly relevant, and are today used both in traditional one-way radio transmission, but also as the foundation for Bluetooth technology, which is supported by cars, phones, speakers, and everything in between. This report describes the development of a special Bluetooth transmitter, a so-called beacon, which also features wireless network connection to expand the traditional functionality of beacons and yield new opportunities. The new product is named Beacone. Supportive software, such as a web interface and a mobile cellphone application, is also developed. The result is evaluated, and possible improvements are discussed. The work shows that there are circumstances where Wi-Fi connectivity provides benefits which would not be available without it.

  • Rang, Tobias
    Karlstad University.
    NFV performance benchmarking with OVS and Linux containers2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One recent innovation in the networking industry, is the concept of Network FunctionVirtualization (NFV). NFV is based on a networking paradigm in which network functions,which have typically been implemented in the form of dedicated hardware appliances in thepast, are implemented in software and deployed on commodity hardware using modernvirtualization techniques. While the most common approach is to place each virtual networkfunction in a virtual machine - using hardware-level virtualization – the growing influenceand popularity of Docker and other container-based solutions has naturally led to the idea ofcontainerized deployments. This is a promising concept, as containers (or operating systemlevel virtualization) can offer a flexible and lightweight alternative to hardware-levelvirtualization, with the ability to use the resources of the host directly. The main problem withthis concept, is the fact that the default behavior of Docker and similar technologies is to relyon the networking stack of the host, which typically isn’t performant enough to handle theperformance requirements associated with NFV. In this dissertation, an attempt is made toevaluate the feasibility of using userspace networking to accelerate the network performanceof Docker containers, bypassing the standard Linux networking stack by moving the packetprocessing into userspace.

  • Airola, Rasmus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hager, Kristoffer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Image Classification, Deep Learning and Convolutional Neural Networks: A Comparative Study of Machine Learning Frameworks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of machine learning and specifically neural networks is a growing trend in software development, and has grown immensely in the last couple of years in the light of an increasing need to handle big data and large information flows. Machine learning has a broad area of application, such as human-computer interaction, predicting stock prices, real-time translation, and self driving vehicles. Large companies such as Microsoft and Google have already implemented machine learning in some of their commercial products such as their search engines, and their intelligent personal assistants Cortana and Google Assistant.

    The main goal of this project was to evaluate the two deep learning frameworks Google TensorFlow and Microsoft CNTK, primarily based on their performance in the training time of neural networks. We chose to use the third-party API Keras instead of TensorFlow's own API when working with TensorFlow. CNTK was found to perform better in regards of training time compared to TensorFlow with Keras as frontend. Even though CNTK performed better on the benchmarking tests, we found Keras with TensorFlow as backend to be much easier and more intuitive to work with. In addition, CNTKs underlying implementation of the machine learning algorithms and functions differ from that of the literature and of other frameworks. Therefore, if we had to choose a framework to continue working in, we would choose Keras with TensorFlow as backend, even though the performance is less compared to CNTK.

  • Bleeker, Ellen-Louise
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Reinholdsson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Creating a Raspberry Pi-Based Beowulf Cluster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis summarizes our project in building and setting up a Beowulf cluster. The idea of the project was brought forward by the company CGI in Karlstad, Sweden. CGI’s wish is that the project will serve as a starting point for future research and development of a larger Beowulf cluster. The future work can be made by both employees at CGI and student exam projects from universities. The projects main purpose was to construct a cluster by using several credit card sized single board computers, in our case the Raspberry Pi 3. The process of installing, compiling and con- figuring software for the cluster is explained. The MPICH and TensorFlow software platforms are reviewed. A performance evaluation of the cluster with TensorFlow is given. A single Raspberry Pi 3 can perform neural network training at a rate of seven times slower than an Intel system (i5-5250U at 2.7 GHz and 8 GB RAM at 1600 MHz). The performance degraded significantly when the entire cluster was training. The precise cause of the performance degradation was not found, but is ruled out to be in software, either a programming error or a bug in TensorFlow.

  • Persson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Microsoft  Azure i IoT-utveckling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AF’s office in Karlstad currently offer consultation regarding Internet of Things but are looking to expand into development of services. They have requested that an end-to-end solution is developed in order to demonstrate the technology to potential clients. This thesis describes the work performed to realize an end-to-end solution for connecting sensors and actuators to the cloud. It also describes the problems experienced while working with Microsofts platform for cloud services, Azure.

  • Söder, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Cloud Based System Integration: System Integration between Salesforce.com and Web-based ERP System using Apache Camel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an era of technological growth, cloud computing is one of the hottest topics on the market. This, along with the overall increased use of digital systems, requires solid integration options to be developed. Redpill Linpro recognizes this and has developed a cloud-based Integration Platform as a Service (IPaaS) solution called Connectivity Engine. New techniques like this can however seem very abstract to a customer, something which a demo application could help substantiate. To aid in this issue we have developed a web-based Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system as well as an Integration Application to connect the ERP system with Salesforce.com in a bidirectional integration. With the use of Connectivity Engine this can be hosted in the cloud and be easily accessible. The project has been a success for Redpill Linpro as well as the authors. A solid way to demonstrate the abilities of Connectivity Engine has been developed along with descriptive documentation for any sales representative assigned to pitch the platform.

  • Andersson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Är det riktigt att grammatik är viktigt?: En studie om läromedels argument till att läsa grammatik och elevers inställning till dessa argument2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study’s aim is to examine which arguments that occur, in three popular teaching aids in upper secondary school’s grammar education, to learn grammar. The study is carried out through a comparative teaching aid analysis of three common teaching aids that deal with grammar, based on 20 teachers authentic choice of teaching aids. Through these teaching aids, a compilation of the arguments is carried out. Furthermore, the study also consists of a questionnaire that aims to examine student’s outlook on these arguments, but also their perception on grammar’s relevance and utility in school’s education. The students get to describe if they think that the teaching aid’s arguments are legitimate. To combine a study of which arguments that occur in popular teaching aids of why students should learn grammar, with a questionnaire of student’s outlook on these arguments, thus show if students find the teaching aids’ arguments to be justified – hence can we know if the argument holds according to the students. It is highly relevant to examine how popular teaching aids motivates students to learn grammar, since previous research show that grammar education is faced with big problems, like for instance student’s ability to understand grammar’s relevance and usefulness in relation to school. The study’s result shows that the majority of the students actually consider grammar to be important – but also that they think that grammar is boring. Furthermore, the study also shows that the majority of the students consider nine out of the ten arguments to be legitimate. The study moreover shows that the majority of the students, after taking part of the arguments, thought that grammar was important even before they saw the teaching aid’s arguments, and almost one third answered that the arguments had helped them realize the importance of grammar.

  • Gregebo, Victor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Struktur på den digitala arbetsplatsen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept the digital workplace can be viewed as a collection of all tools and IT systems that are used while working digitally. The digital workplace needs an internal communication strategy that describes how information is being managed in order to get a better information structure in the digital tools. This structure is needed to make more efficient use of the tools. Fabriken believes the intranet is the tool that can connect all tools in the digital workplace.

    The strategies describe where employees can either find or share information within the organization. If a communication strategy has not been developed, disadvantages such as redundancy, duplicated information and difficulties in finding the correct information may occur.

    The goal of this study is to develop an internal communication strategy and explore whether the intranet could become a central part in Fabriken's digital workplace. The communication strategy has been developed by collecting data from interviews and workshops. To make the communication strategy a reality, a Proof of Concept (PoC) was planned to be developed. The objective of this PoC is to show possibilities of the strategy where Fabriken can decide if they want to further develop it. Due to lack of time a PoC was never developed.

    This study has resulted in a communication strategy and suggested changes to the intranet. These changes involve intranets availability and a solution consisting of a knowledge bank.

  • Gustafsson, Paulina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Läsinlärning, läsutveckling & lässvårigheter: - En studie om läsning med fokus på de svagare eleverna2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about learning to read, reading development, and reading disabilities with focus on the weaker students. The purpose is to investigate and describe how teachers work with the various parts of reading development in school. The purpose also concerns different steps in the learning procedure of reading and how teachers practice this in the classroom, with the main focus on pupils with reading disabilities. My choice of method are interviews and I have interviewed three teachers who work in grades F–3 focusing on the above-mentioned reading directions. A special educator was also interviewed to gain a broader view and knowledge about reading disabilities. After analyzing the data one conclusion is that the result is very consistent with earlier studies and research regarding learning to read, reading development and reading disabilities. For example, pupils’ learning develops very well if the teachers learn in a playful and pleasing way. 

  • Stenmo, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Aktiv läsundervisning: En studie av hur lärare stöttar elevers förståelse av faktatexter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several international knowledge measurements in succession have shown that Swedish students' reading comprehension of factual texts has become worse. Debaters and researchers have created a debate on how education should be done to change the downward trend. Even in the school's governing documents, the debate can be considered and lgr11 emphasizes that all teachers should work on language development regardless of subject to support students' reading comprehension. For this reason, I have investigated how teachers support students' understanding of factual texts in grades 4-6, which I have done with qualitative research methods. I have interviewed five teachers who teach Swedish and at least one of the science topics where students meet factual texts naturally. In order to strengthen the validity and reliability of the results, I have observed all teachers' teaching in the processing of a factual text. The observations took place at two social science and two natural science lessons and at a lesson in Swedish. I have come to the conclusion that the education of the informants does not leave the students alone with factual texts when they are processed together in the classroom and different reading strategies are used in the teaching. However, the teachers do not model or argue to the students that in the teaching they use strategies to create understanding of the content and that there are strategies that the students themselves can use when reading on their own. Therefore, I have come to the conclusion that my informants do not actively support students' reading comprehension of factual texts.

  • Löfdahl Hellström, Nathalie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Att skriva för att lära sig läsa: En studie av skrivandets och IKTs betydelse läsinlärandet i grundskolans tidiga år2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to examine how teachers work with writing in order to promote pupils literacy. The object is also to study what possibilities and confines the teachers see with ICT as a teaching aid regarding literacy. The empiricism of the study is made up of the answers from the interviews. A conscious selection concerning the assortment of the participating teachers has been made and therefore only teachers who work with preschool and primary school have been interviewed. The teachers all work in the same municipality but on different schools in order to make the result as varied as possible. The theoretical framework for the study is the socio-cultural perspective and the emergent literacy in which pupils learn through interaction.

    My study shows that teachers use writing to a high extent and all of them emphasize that writing and reading are intensely connected. Several teachers point out that many pupils learn to write before they learn how to read. The study also showed that participating teachers varied their method of working with writing. The most characteristic way of working was that all of the teachers started writing during the pupils first year in school and also that several of the teachers used the writing of a mutual diary as the pupils introduction to the world of writing. The results show that all of the teachers use computers and other ICT based tools as a teaching aid but that the purpose of using ICT varies.

  • Brandén, Carl-Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Determination of the Degree of Oxidation in Dialdehyde Cellulose Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis work was to investigate possible in-, on- or at-line methods to determine the degree of oxidation in dialdehyde cellulose. Several technologies were reviewed which led to a feasibility study into a possible on-line or at-line method using near infrared spectroscopy for determining the degree of oxidation in wet dialdehyde cellulose. A calibration model was built using the near infrared spectra of 19 samples created from kraft pulp with a degree of oxidation between 0 and 52.1 %. The obtained model uses five significant principal components and has a goodness of fit (R2) of 0.998 and a goodness ofprediction (Q2) of 0.991. The first principal component describes the degree of oxidation and the second the water content. A validation set of six samples was used to test the model and the predicted values resulted in a root mean square error of prediction of 0.85 in comparison with the reference method which had a pooled standard deviation of 0.69.

  • Wingqvist, Matilda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Att undervisa om berättande texter: Hur man kan arbeta med genrepedagogik med fokus på berättande texter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of my research is to increase understanding of what teaching with genre pedagogy, with focus on narrative texts, can look like. Through previous research and literature, I describe the emergence of genre pedagogy, why genre pedagogy is used, what a narrative text is and how it can be evaluated.

    The empirical material of the study consists of qualitative research interviews with teachers, as well as document analyses of the teachers’ educational plans with the purpose to gain a broader view of teaching with narrative texts. I have deliberately chosen the school I carried out my survey on. From my own experience, I know that this school work with genre pedagogy, which made it easier for me and the teachers as they knew the concepts, methods and terminology behind my questions.

    The results of the survey show that genre pedagogy promotes students’ learning, regardless of whether teachers choose to follow the structured circle model or focus on the creative personal writing. Both former researches and my teacher informants believe that the genre pedagogical teaching helps the students’ to develop subject language and their strategies for reading and writing texts in different genres.

    Nevertheless, as the results display, extra support is sometimes needed to further enhance students’ writing performance. The result also shows that the assessment of narrative texts usually has the best effect if it is written and formative. 

  • Nyström, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    En studie om talutrymme samt bemötande i klassrummet utifrån elevernas kön2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to see if there is any difference in speech space and teachers treatment against pupils with different gender.  I have made this study based on behaviorist and a socio-cultural approach. Children need a positive reinforcement to learn and to co-op with their environment. Together with a more competent student or teacher can a child learn more than on its own. I have observed two operating teachers on two different schools. Every teacher has been observed at four opportunities. I have used both an observation scheme and a sound recording of the classes. After the recording material and the observation scheme has been analyzed.

    The result has showed that the speech space between boys and girls is comparable with a small advantage of girls, girls more frequent want to speak their mind during class.  On the other hand, boys get more attention via encouragement and injunctions. The result also shows that the teacher foremost is using responsive initiation draws.  It’s the teacher who nominates who get the speak in the classroom and the follow-up to the students is usually short.

  • Dannberg, Marja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Litteratur och genus i skolan: Hur genus framställs i två bilderböcker samt hur det kan användas i ett didaktiskt syfte2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how gender and equality is represented in children's books and how educators from a didactic perspective can work with children's literature as part of their work with value-based issues. The books used for this paper is Alfons och Milla (1985) written by Gunilla Bergström and Kalle med klänning (2008) written by Anette

    Skåhlberg. These books were written during different decades and both the gender and ecuality aspect is presented differently. This might be explained by the values and what was normal during the times that they were written. Kalle med klänning (2008) is challenging the normal thoughts about gender. The book Alfons och Milla (1985) presents that boys and girls are different in the sense that they do and act differently. After analyzing both these books the conclusion is that Kalle med klänning (2008) is more suitable from a didactical perspective although Alfons och Milla (1985) can also be used in a didactic purpose. Both books gives us a good ground to discuss what is typically male and what is typically female although they illustrate gender differently. Methods to enlight these questions may be to read out loud and/or have a discussion about the books to get a deeper understanding regarding gender, equality and common principles.

  • Lyman, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Pojkar, flickor och littratur: Genusstudie om pojkars och flickors litteraturval i åldern 10 - 122017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in boys and girls literature choices, depending on gender. The survey looks at the significance of the characters, the act and the authors gender, to see if this is the basis of which the choice is based and why does it fall where it does. I have looked at previous research and results from PISA and PIRLS, which was the reason why this study was done. To arrive at a result, I have used interviews. The informants were 20 students in grades 4–6 and 2 middle school teachers. The result showed a difference in the literature choice depending on gender, but this difference was first clarified among the informants in the higher age group.