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  • Flygare, Mattias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Quantifying crystallinity in carbon nanotubes and its influence on mechanical behaviour2019In: Materials Today Communications, ISSN 2352-4928, Vol. 18, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The different fabrication methods that have been developed for making carbon nanotubes will provide materials with different levels of crystallinity. As crystallinity is qualitatively known to have a profound influence on material properties, this raises the need for standardised quantitative analysis. Here we show how transmission electron microscopy can be used to provide quantitative information about effective crystallite sizes in individual nanotubes which we link to the mechanical behaviour of the tubes. The method relies on a thorough analysis of diffraction patterns and a careful extraction of instrumental and sample contributions to the peak shapes. We find that arc-discharge grown tubes have crystallite sizes that are comparable to the circumference of the outer tube walls, while commercial catalytically grown tubes have much smaller crystallites implying that each cylindrical nanotube wall can be thought of as a patchwork of small graphene-like grains. The clear differences in crystallite sizes are then compared to known differences in mechanical behaviour, such as a substantial disparity in stiffness and significantly different behaviours under bending stress.

  • Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centrum för genusforskning (from 2013).
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University.
    Preschool anxieties: Constructions of risk and gender in preschool teachers’ talk on physical interaction with children2018In: Journal of Early Childhood Research, ISSN 1476-718X, E-ISSN 1741-2927, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that inexperienced preschool teachers experience anxiety in physical interaction with children. Against this backdrop, this article investigates how student-teachers and newly graduated preschool teachers talk about the risk of being accused of inappropriately touching children. This article is based on interviews with 20 women and men who recently started working in preschools, or who are soon to graduate as preschool teachers. Building on the notion of relational touch, the article shows that concerns over touch involve much more than the physical act itself. Relations among teachers, parents, children, management and policies are actualised in the informants’ narratives, narratives that are also tied to notions of gender and gender equality. The article shows that anxiety over touch is not gender-specific. The concept of relational touch is suggested as a tool to gain a nuanced understanding of the worries that especially newly educated preschool teachers can experience in relation to touch.

  • Lindahl, Klas
    et al.
    Plank, KatarinaKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Karlstads moské: Förhandlingar om islam i Värmland2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antologin Karlstads moské är den första sammanhängandestudien som belyser muslimer och islam i Värmland.Antologin utgörs av ett studentbaserat forskningsprojektsom ägde rum hösten 2017.

  • Krekula, Clary
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Time, precarisation and age normality: On internal job mobility among men in manual work2018In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the conditions for extended working life from an organising perspective. Based on the idea that temporality makes up a fundamental organising dimension, it discusses conceptions of internal job mobility, and if and when employees are expected to relocate to a different unit at work. The material consists of interviews with 11 men between the ages of 56 and 74, working in manual and managerial capacities at a foundry of a Swedish branch of a large international steel company. The results show that internal work mobility is regulated by normative assumptions of mobility in terms of on- and off-time. This socio-temporal order constructs younger age groups as the age normality while designating the older employees' transitions as a normative breach. It is also shown that the temporal order constitutes a disciplining element steering employees from an early stage to plan for limitations that may arise as a result of ageism and/or physical changes. The result confirms that transition to less-physically demanding tasks is a prerequisite for continuing working in a physically demanding job. These transitions are not, however, included in the socio-temporal order of the company, but are presented as the older employees' individual problem. All together, these results show the need to introduce organisational practices and corporate strategies in the debate on extended working life.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-19 09:15 Karlstad
    Alizadeh Noghani, Kyoomars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Towards Seamless Live Migration in SDN-Based Data Centers2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Live migration of Virtual Machines (VMs) has significantly improved the flexibility of modern Data Centers (DCs). Ideally, live migration ought to be seamless which in turn raises challenges on how to minimize service disruption and avoid performance degradation. To address these challenges, a comprehensive support from the underlying network is required. However, legacy DC networks fall short to help as they take a reactive approach to live migration procedure. Moreover, the complexity and inflexibility of legacy DC networks make it difficult to deploy, manage, and improve network technologies that DC providers may need to use for migration.

    In this thesis, we explore the application of Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm for making live VM migration more seamless. Exploiting the characteristics of SDN such as its centralized view on network states, we contribute to the body of knowledge by enhancing the quality of intra- and inter-DC live migration. Firstly, for intra-DC migration, we provide an SDN-based solution which minimizes the service disruption by employing OpenFlow-based resiliency mechanisms to prepare a DC network for migration proactively. Secondly, we improve the inter-DC live migration by accelerating the network convergence through announcing the migration in the control plane using MP-BGP protocol. Further, our proposed framework resolves the sub-optimal routing problem by conducting the gateway functionality at the SDN controller. Finally, with the ultimate goal of improving the inter-DC migration, we develop an SDN-based framework which automates the deployment, improves the management, enhances the performance, and increases the scalability of interconnections among DCs.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-21 13:15 Geijersalen, 12A 138
    Fatheddine, Djamila
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Den kroppsliga läsningen: Bildningsperspektiv på litteraturundervisning2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores aspects of reading literature, embodiment and Bildung with a specific focus on literature education in compulsory school. The main purpose of this study is to discuss and problematize literature education in Swedish compulsory schools by focusing on embodiment and Bildung. The theoretical framework of this thesis draws on hermeneutics and phenomenology, and especially on the concepts of experience and the lived body. Through four studies, the thesis investigates different aspects of literature reading and literature teaching. In the first study the focus is on the curriculum of the school subject Swedish, while the second study investigates teachers' classroom practices when teaching literature in years three and five. In the third study, the focus is on pupils in years four and five, who enjoy reading fiction, and their stories and experiences of reading. The fourth study is based on empirical material from the third study that is combined with empirical material presented earlier in order to highlight possible approaches to Bildung in literature education in the school subject Swedish. The methods used in the thesis are textual analysis (study 1), observation (study 2) and interviews (study 3 and 4). 

    The overall result shows that children's reading experiences can be considered a possible way of initiating a process of Bildung, and further that this process has bodily dimensions. The study also reveals that there is a discrepancy between how literature reading is articulated in the Swedish curriculum, on the one hand, and how reading is experienced by pupils and how reading education take place in practice, on the other. Possible implications of this discrepancy is that the formative potential does not reach all pupils.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-18 10:15 21A 244, Ljungberg, Karlstad
    Thorman, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Where did the ink go?: The effect of liquid absorption on ink distribution in flexography2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The appearance of a print is affected by the individual ink layers. If the ink is unevenly distributed on the substrate it lowers the quality. This thesis puts focus on how the liquid absorbency of a coated substrate impacts on the ink distribution in flexographic printing. It is well known that a smooth surface increases the chances of a uniform print, whereas the influence from an uneven absorption is not established and has even been difficult to measure. If the ink is applied directly onto the substrate, or as an overprint onto already present ink layers, the outcome is even more complex. Ink trapping behaviour affects the uniformity of overprint layers. As of yet, this been largely overlooked in flexography.

    The work includes several trials, from monochrome laboratory printing at 0.5 ms-1 to multicolour printing at 10 ms-1 in production-scale. These studies showed that ink absorption interacted directly with monochrome ink layers and that pore-structures with larger pores and greater liquid uptake generated more uniform prints. The tolerance of uneven pore-structure, and thereby absorption, varied between samples.

    In multicolour printing, the overprint layer interacted directly with the preceding ink and indirectly with the absorbency (rate and uniformity) of the substrate. Overprint layers became thicker when the first ink layer was thinner and, consequently, turned uneven when the first layer was uneven. Moreover, the time between the applications of the two inks was important. When immobilisation of the first ink was too slow or uneven, it disturbed the ink trapping so that the overprint layer became uneven.

    Output from this project offers a palette of tools to use when studying liquid absorption and its impact on print quality: a) experimental approach to separate the influence of uneven absorption from surface roughness, b) aqueous staining technique to characterise absorption non-uniformity, and c) technique to characterise ink trapping non-uniformity.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-18 10:00 11D 257, Agardhsalen, Karlstad
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Perceived Accessibility: Living a satisfactory life with help of the transport system2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis fills a gap in contemporary transport research and planning as it introduces perceived accessibility as a theoretical and methodological concept for incorporating the individual dimension of accessibility in current practice. Perceived accessibility is defined as “how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system”, and is proposed as a complement to objective measures and understandings of accessibility.

    The thesis includes three studies. Study I developed a measure for capturing perceived accessibility with a specific transport mode, based on theories and conceptualizations of accessibility. Study II looked at determinants of perceived accessibility, and Study III further developed the measure of perceived accessibility to include actual travel (combinations of transport modes), and explored the relation between perceived accessibility and objectively measured accessibility for the same geographical area in Sweden. In all, the thesis provides background ideas and theory on perceived accessibility, and a validated quantitative approach to capturing perceived accessibility in day-to-day travel. Empirical findings further support the complementary nature of the approach and results indicate that assessments of perceived accessibility may be helpful in determining where to direct interventions aiming at improving accessibility by evaluating different transport modes or different segments of individuals. The method developed for capturing perceived accessibility shows merit in contributing to further theory development on accessibility by its ability to identify determinants of perceived accessibility and its potential in identifying segments of the population that experience significantly lower accessibility than other groups, and thus are at risk of experiencing social exclusion or suffer from transport disadvantage.

  • Hudson, Brian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). University of Sussex, England.
    Powerful Knowledge and Epistemic Quality in School Mathematics2018In: London Review of Education, ISSN 1474-8460, E-ISSN 1474-8479, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 384-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to current debates on progressive, knowledge-based approaches to the curriculum by addressing the question of what it is that studentsare entitled to learn in school mathematics. From the outset it recognizes progressivearguments that teaching should be reconnected with the emancipatory ambitionsof education. In doing so, it takes the notion of powerful knowledge as a startingpoint, based on what knowledge school students have the right to have access to.In turn, it considers this as a question of epistemic quality. This is elaborated as aconcept by drawing on outcomes from a recent study arising from the DevelopingMathematical Thinking in the Primary Classroom (DMTPC) project. This conceptis founded on the analysis of a distinction between mathematical fallibilism,based on a heuristic view of mathematics as a human activity, and mathematicalfundamentalism, which reflects an authoritarian view of the subject as beinginfallible, absolutist and irrefutable. The relation between powerful knowledge andepistemic quality is considered further by framing it within a sociological theoryof knowledge. This helps to highlight a further distinction between knowing thatand knowing how, which is used to illustrate examples of high and low epistemicquality in school mathematics. The first example of high epistemic quality is drawnfrom the DMTPC project. The second example is of low epistemic quality andcomes from the highly promoted Core Knowledge Foundation that has recentlybeen imported into English schools from the USA. Finally, the article considers therole of teachers as curriculum makers at the classroom level where curriculum andpedagogy effectively merge. In conclusion, the implications for both policyand practice are considered, in particular proposals are made in relation to therole and place of subject didactics in teaching and teacher education.

  • Gustavsson, Tomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Benefits of Agile Project Management in a Non-Software Development Context: A Literature Review2016In: Project Management Development – Practice and Perspectives: Fifth International Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic Countries, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, Riga: Latvijas Universitate , 2016, p. 114-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last fifteen years we have witnessed a vast spread of new methods for managing projects within software development. In 2001, the Agile Manifesto stated the common values and principles of these methods, all aimed at producing better software. Several of these values and principals are specifically expressed for designing and programming software products. Since then, the benefits of these methods have led to a widespread use of agile project management even in non-software development contexts. But, how does these values and principals affect projects in non-software areas since some values and principals are not applicable? Do they perceive the same benefits? This paper presents a systematic literature review aimed at identifying benefits in projects adopting agile methods in non-software development contexts. Out of the 21 case studies analysed, most reported projects were from manufacturing companies but even from areas such as library management and strategy management. The most frequently reported benefits were related to team work, customer interaction, productivity and flexibility. The main parts of the benefits were corresponding to the first value in the Agile Manifesto: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-14 13:30 1B 364 (Frödingsalen), Karlstad
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Student Sustainability Consciousness: Investigating Effects of Education for Sustainable Development in Sweden and Beyond2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and sustainability education has been an important part of education worldwide for many years, aiming to foster pro-environmental behavior among young people. Education for sustainable development (ESD) and its teaching components holism (the approach to the content) and pluralism (the approach to teaching) has been launched as the educational approach to support this aim by empowering young people with action competence for a sustainable future. Environmental and sustainability certifications are commonly used by schools as support in their ESD-implementation efforts. To date, scholarly attention to, and critical reflection on the effects of such certification on students’ perceptions of sustainability have been limited.

    This doctoral thesis focuses on this gap in ESD research through five large-scale studies, four of which were conducted in Sweden and one in Taiwan. Questionnaire instruments measuring students’ sustainability consciousness (SC) and their experiences of ESD were developed for the project.  In total, 2 413 students in Sweden and 1 741 students in Taiwan (grades six, nine and twelve) participated by filling in the SC questionnaire. The Swedish students also filled in questionnaires about their experiences of ESD at their schools in terms of holistic approach to content and pluralistic approach to teaching.

    The results question the impact of schools’ environmental and sustainability certification on students’ SC. The results also show the importance of holism and pluralism in ESD for students’ SC, regardless of whether schools were certified or not. Moreover, the findings reveal an adolescent dip in students’ SC as well as a gender gap, both of which were reinforced among students in the certified schools.

    Given the findings, this thesis can give more generalizable guidance for schools and certifying organizations to further reorient ESD towards teaching and learning approaches that have an effect on student SC.

  • Fransson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Quist, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Fri som en fågel: en studie av återprofessionalisering inom Försäkringskassan2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande rapport slutredovisas ett samarbete mellan Försäkringskassan och Centrum för tjänsteforskning (CTF) vid Karlstads universitet. I en tidigare studie (ISF 2015:7) har det konstaterats att chefernas bristande tillit till medarbetarna inom myndigheten, i form av detaljstyrning och splittrade arbetsuppgifter, ger anmärkningsvärt dåliga resultat. 

    Problemet är inte ovanligt. Under många år har granskningsorgan, forskare, fackförbund och media kritiserat den managementbyråkratiska och NPM-inspirerade styrning som idag dominerar i svensk offentlig sektor. Vinden tycks nu ha vänt och jakten på något bättre har inletts. Som ett led i det inrättade regeringen 2016 den så kallade Tillitsdelegationen som bland annat konstaterat att välfärdstjänsterna kan utvecklas om medarbetarna ges större handlingsutrymme.

    Sedan länge är det väl utrett av forskare att detaljstyrning inte fungerar. Bättre resultat kan uppnås med professionalism, det vill säga med ett mera självstyrt och kunskapsbaserat beslutsfattande av medarbetare med gemensam värdegrund och utbildning. Problemen är alltså mest att betrakta som en följdriktig konsekvens av dåligt ledarskap. I en tid med alltmer otillräckliga resurser gör den illa avvägda styrningen att skattemedel förslösas och välfärden försvagas. 

    Kunskapsläget om professionalism är gott men studierna av återprofessionalisering få. Under närmare ett och ett halvt år avskärmades därför två enheter inom Försäkringskassan från detaljstyrningen. Med nyvunnen frihet skulle medarbetarna istället finna sina egna arbetssätt och utforma en alltmer professionell verksamhet. 

    Det var som att öppna dörren till en fågelbur: fågeln satt kvar utan att flyga ut. Länge utforskades verkligheten från burens insida. Vad stod det egentligen i lagtexten? Vad gick att lära av de sjukskrivnaoch andra intressenter? Hur lång tid tog det från att en ansökan kommit in till att den hade behandlats? Men allteftersom de professionella samtalen fick verka ökade fågelns vilja att testa sina vingar. 

    I allt högre grad började medarbetarna söka och åtgärda orsaker inom enheten, istället för att peka på ledning och givna förutsättningar. Lärandet ökade när de kände ansvar och behov av fakta. Den nyvunna kunskapen gjorde att engagemanget och det upplevda ansvarsområdet vidgades, från den egna, snäva arbetsuppgiften till att oftare omfatta enhetens sammantagna funktion i en större helhet. Samtalen inom enheterna, som tidigare kunde vara konfliktfyllda och resultatlösa, blev mer konstruktiva och slutade allt oftare i konsensus och gemensam handling. Och trots att medarbetarna under försöksperioden kunde välja att bortse från centrala krav tycks de ha varit stolta över att bejaka, införa och tillgodose kraven, åtminstone dem som de tyckte var rimliga och legitima. 

    Resultaten var väntade. Det forskarna ville veta var istället vad som hindrar återprofessionalisering. Hur agerar medarbetare som ges större friheter och vilka föreställningar hindras de av?

    Trots friheten och ivern att förändra hindrades de länge av sina egna, ofta managementbyråkratiska, föreställningar, exempelvis om chefer och styrkedjor. De hyste låg tilltro till sin egen och kollegornas förmåga och sökte gärna svaren utanför den egna enheten.Ännu vid försökens slut hindrades de exempelvis av drömmen om att någon utanför gruppen, som bättre förstod, skulle komma och rädda dem genom att styra upp tillvaron och minska deras vilsenhet.

    Inom den omgivande verksamheten var styrningen oförändrad, vilket gav möjlighet att också studera hur befintliga styrsystem försvarar sig. Vad är det med professionalismen som managementbyråkratin upplever som ett hot? Försöken provocerade fram beteenden utanför enheterna som, åtminstone i praktiken, var ett försvar av den befintliga styrning som många ifrågasätter. Det gick att avtäcka något av det motstånd som med stor sannolikhet kommer att dyka upp även vid mer fullskalig återprofessionalisering. 

    Vad som framförallt tycks vara svårt att acceptera inom managementbyråkratin är värdet av professionalismens lokala samtal, där kunskap uppstår och lösningar formas. De friare tyglarna är oförenliga med idén om ett enda bästa arbetssätt som kan identifieras för att tillämpas i standardiserad form överallt och alltid. Det gillas inte att arbetssätten måste utarbetas, beslutas och fritt kunna förändras av precis samma individer som utför arbetet, det vill säga att hjulet i någon mening måste uppfinnas på varje arbetsplats. Få tycks tro att den tid det tar, särskilt i början, betalar sig, att det kan vara värt den långa tid som uppfinnandet, pratet, lärandet och utvecklingen förbrukar.

    Efter decennier av managementbyråkrati utgörs det tydligaste hindret mot återprofessionalisering av de väldrillade chefer och stabspersoner som reproducerar dagens styrning. Vill regeringen återprofessionalisera offentlig sektor måste rekryteringsprofilen vid tillsättandet av myndighetschefer ses över. 

  • Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Westman, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Children’s Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with School Travel2018In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand children’s experiences of their daily travel, and the consequences of these experiences, it is essential that we directly address children. The Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS) is a self-report instrument consisting of nine items divided into three subscales – two reflecting affective travel experiences and one reflecting cognitive travel experiences. The present study has two aims: (i) to examine the psychometric properties of a child version of the STS (referred to as the STS-C), and (ii) to test a potentially positive relationship between travel satisfaction and life satisfaction among children, something which has been found among adults. Three hundred and forty-five children completed the STS-C, life satisfaction scales, and sociodemographic variables. Analyses using Partial Least Square structural equation modelling revealed that the STS-C was internally reliable, had a sound construct validity, and confirmed a one-factor second-order measurement model with three first-order constructs (subscales). Furthermore, children’s satisfaction with school travel was also significantly related to their life satisfaction as measured by their satisfaction with: themselves, school experiences, friendships, family, and living environment. The relationship between travel satisfaction and life satisfaction varied between modes, whereby it was stronger among those who traveled by active modes than those who traveled by school bus or car. Younger children and boys were more satisfied with their travel to school, something which also had an indirect effect on their life satisfaction.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-11 13:15 Sjöströmsalen, 1B 309, Karlstad
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Advancing Models of Privacy Decision Making: Exploring the What & How of Privacy Behaviours2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People's decisions do not happen in a vacuum; there are multiple factors that may affect them. There are external determinants, such as cost/benefit calculation of decision outcomes. There are also internal factors, such as attitudes, personality, emotions, age, and nationality. Frequently, the latter have a final say on the decision at hand, and similar determinants are triggered during the digital interaction when people make decisions about their privacy.

    The current digital privacy landscape is filled with recurring security breaches and leaks of personal information collected by online service providers. Growing dependency on Internet-connected devices and increasing privacy risks prompted policy makers to protect individuals' right to privacy. In Europe, the General Data Protection Regulation requires companies to provide adequate information about their data collection and processing practices to users, to increase privacy awareness and enable better decision making. Regardless, currently there is no sufficient, usable technology, which could help people make improved privacy decisions, decreasing over-disclosure and oversharing. Hence, multidisciplinary researchers aim at developing new privacy-enhancing solutions. To define such solutions and successfully convey data provision and processing practices, potential risks, or harms resulting from information disclosure, it is crucial to understand cognitive processes underpinning privacy decisions.

    In this thesis, we examine privacy decisions and define factors that influence them. We investigate the attitude-behaviour relationship and identify privacy concerns affecting perceptions of privacy. Additionally, we examine factors influencing information sharing, such as emotional arousal and personality traits. Our results demonstrate that there is a relationship between privacy concerns and behaviours, and that simplified models of behaviour are insufficient to predict privacy decisions. Our findings show that internal factors, such as nationality and culture, emotional arousal, and individual characteristics, affect privacy decisions. Based on our findings, we conclude that future models of privacy should incorporate such determinants. Further, we postulate that privacy user interfaces must become more flexible and personalised than the current solutions.

  • Mellroth, Elisabet
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Harnessing teachers’ perspectives: Recognizing mathematically highly able pupils and orchestrating teaching for them in a diverse ability classroom2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of research that explores teachers’ perspectives on teaching highly able pupils (HAPs) in the diverse ability classroom. Instead, pupils’ perspectives are common, such studies often concluding that teachers need more professional development or that they fail to support HAPs. Consequently, previous research does not support teachers in how to implement teaching that includes HAPs. This thesis aims to harness teachers’ perspectives of pedagogical possibilities that enable learning opportunities for mathematically highly able pupils (MHAPs). By comparing pupils’ (n=264) relative achievement on two different tests, traditional and non-traditional, the first part of this thesis explores teachers’ possibilities to recognize MHAPs. The results show that pupils who achieved highly on the non-traditional test, but not on the other, have higher problem-solving competence compared to pupils who achieved highly on the traditional test instead. The second part presents a teacher-initiated investigation of pupils’ perceptions of challenging mathematical tasks. The findings indicate that the developed tool can help teachers find suitable tasks for MHAPs. The final part uses positioning theory to analyze teachers’ (N=17) discussions and probe their perceptions on orchestrating teaching MHAPs. The findings show that the teachers have knowledge of how to recognize and support MHAPs. Specifically, the teachers express possibilities with challenging tasks and differentiated education to meet MHAPs’ learning needs. Furthermore, the teachers perceived fewer rights than duties to orchestrate teaching for MHAPs’, for example, to continuously asses them. The studies in this thesis support teachers to orchestrate teaching including MHAPs in the diverse ability classroom. Both practice and research can be guided by what the teachers in these studies perceived as possible to do to orchestrate such teaching. Thereby support is given to teachers, from teachers, through research.

  • Ängeby, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Prolonged latent phase of labour: Prevalence, labour outcomes, quality of care, women’s experiences and preferences, and psychometric properties of a questionnaire2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the prevalence and labour outcome of a prolonged latent phase of labour, quality of care, women’s experiences and preferences during labour, and to psychometrically test a questionnaire.

    Methods: Qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixteen primiparous women’s preferences for care during a prolonged latent phase of labour were studied with focus-group and individual interviews and analysed with content analysis (I). From a one-year cohort of 2660 women, 1554 women with a spontaneous onset of labour were invited to participate and 1389 women accepted invitation (II-IV). Data from 1343 women’s birth records were analysed with descriptive and analytic statistics (II). 758 women, (RR 64%), 343 primiparous and 415 multiparous, responded to the Intrapartal-specific Quality from Patients Perspective Questionnaire, QPP-I (III), the Early Labour Experience Questionnaire, ELEQ (IV) and additionally birth-related items. Data were analysed with descriptive, analytic, and psychometric statistics.

    Main findings: According to women’s self-reports, 23% of women with a spontaneous onset of labour had a prolonged latent phase (>18 hours), which was associated with more obstetrical interventions and instrumental births (II). These women preferred individualised care (I), rated the quality of their intrapartum care lower, were less content with the birth experience, and had more negative feelings during labour and birth than women with a shorter latent phase (III). The ELEQ was translated and adapted to Swedish and resulted in two questionnaires, one for primiparous women, SWE-ELEQ-PP, and one for multiparous women, SWE-ELEQ-MP. Both are valid and reliable and can be used to evaluate early labour care in Sweden (IV).

    Conclusions: A prolonged latent phase of labour can be regarded as a risk factor. It can result in more obstetrical interventions, more instrumental births, a lower perceived quality of care, and a more negative birth experience regardless of parity. Differences in parity must be considered when evaluating early labour care during the latent phase of labour, with special focus to primiparous women.