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  • Eriksson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Bergman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Introduktion till nr 3/4 2016: Arbetsvillkor, upplevelser av arbetet och flexibilitet2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 3/4, 4-7 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2016-12-19 10:15 Eva Erikssonsalen, 21A342, Karlstad
    Tofique, Muhammad Waqas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Tofique, Muhammad Waqas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Initiation and early crack growth in VHCF of stainless steels: Experimental and theoretical analysis2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical fatigue is a failure phenomenon that occurs due to repeated application of mechanical loads. Very High Cycle Fatigue (VHCF) is considered as the domain of fatigue life greater than 10 million load cycles. Increasing numbers of structural components have service life in the VHCF regime, for instance in automotive and high speed train transportation, gas turbine disks, and components of paper production machinery. Safe and reliable operation of these components depends on the knowledge of their VHCF properties. In this thesis both experimental tools and theoretical modelling were utilized to develop better understanding of the VHCF phenomena.

    In the experimental part, ultrasonic fatigue testing at 20 kHz of cold rolled and hot rolled stainless steel grades was conducted and fatigue strengths in the VHCF regime were obtained. The mechanisms for fatigue crack initiation and short crack growth were investigated using electron microscopes. For the cold rolled stainless steels crack initiation and early growth occurred through the formation of the Fine Granular Area (FGA) observed on the fracture surface and in TEM observations of cross-sections. The crack growth in the FGA seems to control more than 90% of the total fatigue life. For the hot rolled duplex stainless steels fatigue crack initiation occurred due to accumulation of plastic fatigue damage at the external surface, and early crack growth proceeded through a crystallographic growth mechanism.

    Theoretical modelling of complex cracks involving kinks and branches in an elastic half-plane under static loading was carried out by using the Distributed Dislocation Dipole Technique (DDDT). The technique was implemented for 2D crack problems. Both fully open and partially closed crack cases were analyzed. The main aim of the development of the DDDT was to compute the stress intensity factors. Accuracy of 2% in the computations was attainable compared to the solutions obtained by the Finite Element Method.

  • Nilsson, Inga-Lill
    Nilsson, Inga-Lill
    Upphovsrätt: forskningsbibliotekens nya kompetensområde2016In: Röster om bibliotek och upphovsrätt: en antologi / [ed] Alex Amnéus, Stockholm: Svensk biblioteksförening , 2016, 33-45 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Bergman, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Bergman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Introduktion till nr 2 2016: Bidrag från Falf-konferensen 20152016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 2, 4-6 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet.
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet.
    Recension av publikationen Mellan jobb. Omställningsavtal och stöd till uppsagda i Sverige av Lars Walter (red)2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 2, 72-75 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Furåker, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Furåker, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Recension av publikationen Understanding class författad av Erik Olin Wright2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 2, 67-71 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Wikman, Sofia
    KTH Stockholm.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH Stockholm.
    Varför ökar det arbetsrelaterade våldet?2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 2, 49-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kriminologer brukar samstämmigt hävda att våldet över tid har minskat. För några arenor gäller inte detta mönster. Arbetslivet är till exempel ett undantag där våldet syns öka sedan 1990-talet. Varför då? Syftet med den här artikeln är att beskriva omfattning och utveckling av våld i arbetslivet, hur våld i arbetslivet uppmärksammats samt vilka åtgärder som föreslås för att komma till rätta med problemet.

  • Norstedt, Maria
    Lunds universitet, Malmö högskola.
    Norstedt, Maria
    Lunds universitet, Malmö högskola.
    Att avslöja sina dolda funktionsnedsättningar i arbetslivet2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 2, 36-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln handlar om hur personer med dolda funktionsnedsättningar, som omgivningen inte direkt kan se, befinner sig i en sårbar situation. Om de är helt öppna med sina funktionsnedsättningar riskerar de, trots en positiv norm om öppenhet, att bemötas eller behandlas som annorlunda av andra på sina arbetsplatser. Artikeln visar hur personer med dolda funktionsnedsättningar pressar sig hårt för att inte avvika från den normalitet som deltagande i arbetslivet innebär.

  • Augustinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad och Linnéuniversitetet i Växjö.
    Augustinsson, Sören
    Högskolan Kristianstad och Linnéuniversitetet i Växjö.
    Ericsson, Ulf
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Karlsson, Jessica
    Linnéuniversitetet i Växjö.
    Samtalsgrupper som ledarutveckling för socialt komplexa organisationer2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 2, 20-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver och problematiserar samtalsgrupper för utveckling av ledarskap. Praktiken med dess komplexitet är utgångspunkten. Möten och interaktioner utanför hierarkin skapar grund för undran och konstruktioner av mening som kan bidra till ett skickligare handlande i den egna praktiken. I studien undersöks samtalsgrupper på Rektorsprogrammet vid Linnéuniversitetet. Utformningen av grupperna, dess processer och deltagarnas upplevelser pekar på att dessa grupper är effektiva för utveckling av skicklighet i ledares handlingar inom ramen för social komplexitet.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-16 10:00 1A305 Lagerlöfsalen
    Sandsdalen, Tuva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Högskolan i Hedmark.
    Sandsdalen, Tuva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Högskolan i Hedmark.
    Quality in palliative care from the patient perspective: Instrument development, perceptions of care received and the importance of care2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim was to investigate the quality of palliative care from the patient perspective, to adapt and psychometrically evaluate the Quality from Patients’ Perspective instrument specific to palliative care (QPP-PC) and investigate the relationship between the combination of person- and organization-related conditions and patients’ perceptions of care quality.

    Methods: In the systematic literature review (I), 23 studies from 6 databases and reference lists in 2014 were synthesized by integrative thematic analysis. The quantitative studies (II–IV) had cross-sectional designs including 191 patients (73% RR) from hospice inpatient care, hospice day care, palliative units in nursing homes and home care in 2013–2014. A modified version of QPP was used. Additionally, person- and organization-related conditions were assessed. Psychometric evaluation, descriptive and inferential statistics were used.

    Main findings: Patients’ preferences for palliative care included living a meaningful life and responsive healthcare personnel, care environment and organization of care (I). The QPP-PC was developed, comprising 12 factors (49 items), 3 single items and 4 dimensions: medical–technical competence, physical–technical conditions, identity–oriented approach, and socio-cultural atmosphere (II). QPP-PC measured patients’ perceived reality (PR) and subjective importance (SI) of care quality. PR differed across settings, but SI did not (III). All settings exhibited areas of strength and for improvement (II, III). Person-related conditions seemed to be related to SI, and person- and organization-related conditions to PR, explaining 18–30 and 22-29% respectively of the variance (IV).

    Conclusions: The patient perspective of care quality (SI and PR) should be integrated into daily care and improvement initiatives in palliative care. The QPP-PC can measure patients’ perceptions of care quality. Registered nurses and other healthcare personnel need awareness of person- and organization-related conditions to provide high-quality person-centred care.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-16 13:15 Fryxellsalen, 1B306
    Lindh, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Lindh, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Regionen och EU?: Uppfattningar och attityder till EU-relaterade frågor i Västsverige2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores perceptions and preferences on regional action in EU-related frameworks among regional actors in Western Sweden. Building upon the literature on Europeanisation and the Fusion approach, three dimensions of Europeanisation are clarified and explored– download, upload and crossload – and together with a set of five variables that constitute the Micro Fusion Framework; a comprehensive analytical tool is developed. The thesis analyses the intense debate among the members of West Sweden that took place from 2011 to 2013 that focused on how to functionally organise the regional office in Brussels in order to meet future challenges. Surprisingly, the members eventually decided to terminate their cooperation and close the jointly owned office in Brussels in spite of the fact that it has been widely regarded as successful and effective. Diverging perceptions and preferences is understood in terms of three positions on regional action; a download-, upload- and a coherent oriented position. Finally, the thesis presents the empirical findings and discusses in relation to three fusion scenarios, infusion, defusion and clustered fusion.

    In terms of Micro Fusion Framework, the dynamics shaping why West Sweden was finally regarded as a dysfunctional arena for regional action are explained by a shift of attention and action among regional actors in Western Sweden that led to pressure for further institutional adaptation in order to meet the demand of how ‘to get the best out of the EU’. Further, this redefinition of how to handle EU-affairs within the upload-oriented position was accompanied by positive attitudes towards the potential to bypass the state and thereby pursue regional priorities directly in Brussels given the compound nature of the EU. In contrast, those regional actors that are found to be more download-oriented often question the benefits of uploading activities in practice and advocate close relations to the state. A coherent oriented position recognises the importance of activities related to both of the vertical dimensions of Europeanisation.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-15 13:00 Rejmersalen, 9C204, Karlstad, Sweden
    Deshpande, Raghu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Deshpande, Raghu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The initial phase of sodium sulfite pulping of softwood: A comparison of different pulping options2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Single stage and two-stage sodium sulfite cooking were carried out on either spruce, pine or pure pine heartwood chips to investigate the influence of several process parameters on the initial phase of such a cook down to about 60 % pulp yield. The cooking experiments were carried out in the laboratory with either a lab-prepared or a mill-prepared cooking acid and the temperature and time were varied. The influences of dissolved organic and inorganic components in the cooking liquor on the final pulp composition and on the extent of side reactions were investigated. Kinetic equations were developed and the activation energies for delignification and carbohydrate dissolution were calculated using the Arrhenius equation. A better understanding of the delignification mechanisms during bisulfite and acid sulfite cooking was obtained by analyzing the lignin carbohydrate complexes (LCC) present in the pulp when different cooking conditions were used. It was found that using a mill-prepared cooking acid beneficial effect with respect to side reactions, extractives removal and higher stability in pH during the cook were observed compared to a lab-prepared cooking acid. However, no significant difference in degrees of delignification or carbohydrate degradation was seen.

     The cellulose yield was not affected in the initial phase of the cook however; temperature had an influence on the rates of both delignification and hemicellulose removal. It was also found that the  corresponding activation energies increased in the order:  xylan, glucomannan, lignin and cellulose. The cooking temperature could thus be used to control the cook to a given carbohydrate composition in the final pulp. Lignin condensation reactions were observed during acid sulfite cooking, especially at higher temperatures. The LCC studies indicated the existence of covalent bonds between lignin and hemicellulose components with respect to xylan and glucomannan. LCC in native wood showed the presence of phenyl glycosides, ϒ-esters and α-ethers; whereas the α-ethers  were affected during sulfite pulping. The existence of covalent bonds between lignin and wood polysaccharides might be the rate-limiting factor in sulfite pulping.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-13 15:15 21A342 - Eva Erikssonsalen, Karlstad
    Iwaya, Leonardo H.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Iwaya, Leonardo H.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Secure and Privacy-aware Data Collection and Processing in Mobile Health Systems2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare systems have assimilated information and communication technologies in order to improve the quality of healthcare and patient's experience at reduced costs. The increasing digitalization of people's health information raises however new threats regarding information security and privacy. Accidental or deliberate data breaches of health data may lead to societal pressures, embarrassment and discrimination. Information security and privacy are paramount to achieve high quality healthcare services, and further, to not harm individuals when providing care. With that in mind, we give special attention to the category of Mobile Health (mHealth) systems. That is, the use of mobile devices (e.g., mobile phones, sensors, PDAs) to support medical and public health. Such systems, have been particularly successful in developing countries, taking advantage of the flourishing mobile market and the need to expand the coverage of primary healthcare programs. Many mHealth initiatives, however, fail to address security and privacy issues. This, coupled with the lack of specific legislation for privacy and data protection in these countries, increases the risk of harm to individuals. The overall objective of this thesis is to enhance knowledge regarding the design of security and privacy technologies for mHealth systems. In particular, we deal with mHealth Data Collection Systems (MDCSs), which consists of mobile devices for collecting and reporting health-related data, replacing paper-based approaches for health surveys and surveillance. This thesis consists of publications contributing to mHealth security and privacy in various ways: with a comprehensive literature review about mHealth in Brazil; with the design of a security framework for MDCSs (SecourHealth); with the design of a MDCS (GeoHealth); with the design of Privacy Impact Assessment template for MDCSs; and with the study of ontology-based obfuscation and anonymisation functions for health data.

  • Andersson K., Pernille
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Andersson K., Pernille
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Changing the servicescape: The influence of music, self-disclosure and eye gaze on service encounter experience and approach-avoidance behavior2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and understand the effect of a servicescape’s ambient and social conditions on consumers’ service encounter experience and their approach/avoidance behavior in a retail context. In three papers, with a total sample of over 1600 participants (including 550 actual consumers) and seven experiments, the author investigates the effect of music (ambient stimuli), employees’ self-disclosure (verbal social stimuli) and employees’ gazing behavior (nonverbal social stimuli) on consumers’ service encounter experience and approach/avoidance behavior in a retail store.

    Paper I comprised two experiments, and the aim was to investigate the influence of music on emotions, approach/avoidance behavior. Paper II comprised two experiments, and the aim was to investigate the effect of frontline employees’ personal self-disclosure on consumers’ reciprocal behavior. Paper III comprised three experiments, and the aim was to investigate the influence of employee’s direct eye gaze/ averted eye gaze on consumer emotions, social impression of the frontline employee and encounter satisfaction in different purchase situations.

    The results in this thesis show that music affects consumers in both positive and negative ways (Paper I). Self-disclosure affects consumers negatively, in such a way that it decreases encounter satisfaction  (Paper II) and, finally, eye gaze affects consumers by regulating both positively – and in some cases also negatively – consumers’ social impression of the frontline employee and their encounter satisfaction (Paper III).

    The conclusions of this thesis are that both ambient and social stimuli in a servicescape affect consumers’ internal responses, which in turn affect their behavior. Depending on the purchase situation, type of retail, and stimuli, the internal and behavioral responses are different.

  • Holmberg, Ulrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics. ulrik_holmberg@hotmail.com.
    Holmberg, Ulrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics. ulrik_holmberg@hotmail.com.
    Significant history and historical orientation: Ugandan students narrate their historical pasts2016Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012, Uganda celebrated 50 years of independence. The postcolonial era in the country has been marked by political turmoil and civil wars. Uganda, like many other postcolonial states in Africa, cannot be described as an ethnically or culturally homogenous state. However, history education has globally been seen as a platform for constructing national identities in contemporary societies. At the same time, it is assumed that specific historical experiences of countries influence historical understanding. This study takes its starting point in the theories of historical consciousness and narrativity. A narrative could be viewed as a site where mobilization of ideas of the past to envisage the present and possible futures is made and hence the narrative expresses historical orientation. Through the concept of historical orientation historical consciousness can be explored, i.e. what history is viewed as significant and meaningful. The aim in the study is to explore in what ways students connect to their historical pasts.

     

    The study explores 219 narratives of 73 Ugandan upper secondary students. Narratives elicited through written responses to three assignments. Designed to capture different approaches to history: either to start from the beginning and narrate history prospectively or to depart from the present narrating retrospectively. The colonial experience of Uganda affected the sampling in the way that students were chosen from two different regions, Central and Northern Uganda. The comparison was a way to handle the concept of ‘nation’ as a presupposed category. Narrative analysis has been used as a method to explore what the students regarded as historically significant and what patterns among the narratives that point towards particular historical orientations.

     

    The empirical results show how different approaches to history, a prospective or a retrospective approach, influence the student narratives. For instance, valued judgments on past developments were more common with the retrospective approach. The results also show differences in evaluating past developments according to regional origin. Students from northern Uganda were generally more inclined to tell a story of decline. Also, it is argued that the student narratives were informed by a meta-narrative of Africa. It was as common to identify oneself as African as it was to identify as Ugandan.

  • Gustavsson, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Added value from biomass by broader utilization of fuels and CHP plants2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work, where additional value-creating processes in existing combined heat and power (CHP) structures have been examined, is motivated by a political- and consumer-driven strive towards a bioeconomy and a stagnation for the existing business models in large parts of the CHP sector.

    The research is based on cases where the integration of flash pyrolysis for co-production of bio-oil, co-gasification for production of fuel gas and synthetic biofuels as well as leaching of extractable fuel components in existing CHP plants have been simulated. In particular, this work has focused on the CHP plants that utilize boilers of fluidized bed (FB) type, where the concept of coupling a separate FB reactor to the FB of the boiler forms an important basis for the analyses. In such dual fluidized bed (DFB) technology, heat is transferred from the boiler to the new rector that is operating with other fluidization media than air, thereby enabling other thermochemical processes than combustion to take place. The result of this work shows that broader operations at existing CHP plants have the potential to enable production of significant volumes of chemicals and/or fuels with high efficiency, while maintaining heat supply to external customers.

    Based on the insight that the technical preconditions for a broader operation are favourable, the motivation and ability among the incumbents in the Swedish CHP sector to participate in a transition of their operation towards a biorefinery was examined. The result of this assessment showed that the incumbents believe that a broader operation can create significant values for their own operations, the society and the environment, but that they lack both a strong motivation as well as important abilities to move into the new technological fields.

    If the concepts of broader production are widely implemented in the Swedish FB based CHP sector, this can substantially contribute in the transition towards a bioeconomy.

  • Haglund, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Haglund, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Att studera vidare eller inte det är frågan: 2 321 gymnasisters funderingar kring högre studier2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att konkurrensen blir allt hårdare om att rekrytera studenter till grundutbildningar på svenska universitet och högskolor har intresset att ta reda på vad studenter och gymnasister tycker och tänker om högre utbildning ökat. Vid Karlstads universitet har vi sedan många år kartlagt vad våra nuvarande studenter tycker om sin utbildning.

    När det gäller gruppen framtida studenter i form av gymnasister har vi tidigare inte på motsvarande sätt systematiskt sätt undersökt hur de ser på högre utbildning. Som ett första steg i ett sådant arbete har vi under läsåret 2006/2007 genomfört tre enkätundersökningar där gymnasisters inställning till högre studier analyserats. Två grupper av studenter har under hösten 2006 skrivit sina examensarbeten med detta tema och baserat på dessa studier har vi under våren 2007 samlat in en större enkät i samband med att alla gymnasister i regionen bjudits in till information om högre utbildning på universitetet i Karlstad.

  • Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Ingesund Acedemy of Music.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Ingesund Acedemy of Music.
    Multi-dimensional musical experience in two primary school classes in Sweden: A collaborative action study2010In: Research commission: Proceedings fo the 23rd International Seminar on Research in Music Educaiton / [ed] Graça Mota & Aiqing Yin, Changchun: North East Normal University , 2010, 33-37 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Sætre, Per Jarle
    Sogn og Fjordane University College, Norway.
    Sætre, Per Jarle
    Sogn og Fjordane University College, Norway.
    Education for Sustainable Development in Norwegian Geography curricula2016In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2016:1, 63-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Norway, environmental education (EE) has been part of schools’ curricula since the 1970s. The concept of education for sustainable development (ESD) was introduced after Agenda 21 was introduced at the UN conference on environment and development held in Rio in 1992. The article shows there has been little change in the geography curricula since the concept ESD was introduced, and no important differences are found between curricula for mandatory schooling (classes 1–10) and curricula for upper secondary schools. ESD is mentioned in the geography curricula but without explanation and implementation. Core goals in the general national core curricula may indicate a change to ESD, but they have not been followed in the development of geography curricula in Norway.

  • Behnke, Yvonne
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Behnke, Yvonne
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    How textbook design may influence learning with geography textbooks2016In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2016:1, 38-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how textbook design may influence students’ visual attention to graphics, photos and text in current geography textbooks. Eye tracking, a visual method of data collection and analysis, was utilised to precisely monitor students’ eye movements while observing geography textbook spreads. In an exploratory study utilising random sampling, the eye movements of 20 students (secondary school students 15–17 years of age and university students 20–24 years of age) were recorded. The research entities were double-page spreads of current German geography textbooks covering an identical topic, taken from five separate textbooks. A two-stage test was developed. Each participant was given the task of first looking at the entire textbook spread to determine what was being explained on the pages. In the second stage, participants solved one of the tasks from the exercise section. Overall, each participant studied five different textbook spreads and completed five set tasks. After the eye tracking study, each participant completed a questionnaire. The results may verify textbook design as one crucial factor for successful knowledge acquisition from textbooks. Based on the eye tracking documentation, learning-related challenges posed by images and complex image-text structures in textbooks are elucidated and related to educational psychology insights and findings from visual communication and textbook analysis.

  • Bagoly-Simó, Péter
    et al.
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Bagoly-Simó, Péter
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Uhlenwinkel, Anke
    Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt.
    Why Physical Geography? An analysis of justifications in teacher magazines in Germany2016In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2016:1, 23-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School geography is often quite different from academic geography and there are good reasons for that, as school is preparing young people to be able to lead the life they value instead of just training them to learn specific subject contents. In some countries school geography is understood as being mainly a social science. Nonetheless physical geography often plays an important part in textbooks and in everyday teaching in these countries. This presentation will examine how physical geography topics are justified in specialist teacher magazines in Germany. Are they justified by simply pointing at the value of the academic knowledge itself? Are they justified by claiming students’ special interest in these topics? Or are they justified by showing the value of physical geography in promoting social aims such as sustainable development, freedom or equality?

  • Witzel Clausen, Søren
    School of Education and Pedagogy, Aarhus University and VIA University College, Denmark.
    Witzel Clausen, Søren
    School of Education and Pedagogy, Aarhus University and VIA University College, Denmark.
    The pedagogical content knowledge of Danish geography teachers in a changing schooling context2016In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2016:1, 1-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the self-reported, topic-specific professional knowledge (TSPK) of Danish geography teachers seen as an aspect of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) when teaching weather formation and climate change. This topic is considered representative of geography teaching in Denmark. In the last ten years Danish primary and lower-secondary schooling has undergone several significant changes, including the introduction of a final multiple-choice exam in geography in 2007, and a fundamental reconstruction of the curriculum in 2014. These changes are expected to influence the TSPK of geography teachers in ways that potentially have an impact on their classroom practice. Teachers´ responses to specific questions relating to their choice of learning goals and the content and organisation of their lessons show that geography teachers take into account not only the knowledge aspects which point to the final multiple-choice exam, but also the ‘bildung’ perspectives of the subject equipping students to develop their own opinions when dealing with socio-scientific issues (SSI).

  • Bladh, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Molin, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala University.
    Research on Geography Education. Introduction to Nordidactica 2016:12016In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2016:1, i-vi p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Høiland-Jørgensen, Toke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Høiland-Jørgensen, Toke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    On the Bleeding Edge: Debloating Internet Access Networks2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As ever more devices are connected to the internet, and applications turn ever more interactive, it becomes more important that the network can be counted on to respond reliably and without unnecessary delay. However, this is far from always the case today, as there can be many potential sources of unnecessary delay. In this thesis we focus on one of them: Excess queueing delay in network routers along the path, also known as bufferbloat.

    We focus on the home network, and treat the issue in three stages. We examine latency variation and queueing delay on the public internet and show that significant excess delay is often present. Then, we evaluate several modern AQM algorithms and packet schedulers in a residential setting, and show that modern AQMs can almost entirely eliminate bufferbloat and extra queueing latency for wired connections, but that they are not as effective for WiFi links. Finally, we go on to design and implement a solution for bufferbloat at the WiFi link, and also design a workable scheduler-based solution for realising airtime fairness in WiFi.

    Also included in this thesis is a description of Flent, a measurement tool used to perform most of the experiments in the other papers, and also used widely in the bufferbloat community.

  • Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower dams block migration routes and disrupt longitudinal connectivity in rivers, thereby posing a threat to migratory fish species. Various fish passage solutions have been implemented to improve connectivity with varying success. A well-functioning passage solution must ensure safe and timely passage routes that are used by a substantial portion of the migrating fish. In this thesis, I report the results from telemetry studies where the behavior and survival of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners, post-spawners and smolts have been evaluated in relation to hydropower dam passage. I evaluate downstream passage performance at dams with no passage solutions in the River Klarälven, and with simple passage solutions in in the Winooski River. In the River Ätran, I study both upstream- and downstream passage performance at a dam with sophisticated passage solutions based on the best available technology. In addition, I have studied the survival and behavior of post-spawners and hatchery-released smolts.

    A substantial portion of the spawners survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Most males migrated downstream in autumn following spawning, whereas females tended to stay in the river until spring. For hatchery-reared smolts, early release was associated with faster initiation of migration and higher survival compared to late release. Multiple dam passage resulted in high mortality for both smolts and kelts. For smolts, dam passage, even with simple passage solutions, was associated with substantial delay and mortality. High spill levels were linked to high survival and short delay for downstream migrating salmon. The best available passage solution, which consisted of a nature-like fishway and a low sloping intake rack to guide fish to a bypass, resulted in rapid passage of a large portion of the adult migrants.

  • Holmqvist Lidh, Carina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Holmqvist Lidh, Carina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Representera och bli representerad: Elever med religiös positionering talar om skolans religionskunskapsundervisning2016Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the encounter between students who postition themselves within a religious tradition and the Swedish school system´s mandatory, integrative and non-confessional subject Religious Education.

    The aim of the study is to show how students who position themselves within a religious tradition speak about the school's religious education. The interest is directed towards three themes. Firstly, the encounter between teaching content and the students experiences of their own religious tradition and faith. A second theme deals with the issue of being representatives of their own tradition in the classroom. A third theme addresses how the students describe the framework and conditions for religious education. The empirical material consists of twenty-one group- and individual interviews with students ages 16-19 from Muslim, Jewish, Christian and Buddhist traditions. Social constructionist theory provides the basis and critical discourse analysis is used as theoretical and analytical approach.

    The results show that all the students in the study find it difficult to recognise and relate to their own tradition in the framework of religious education. According to the students, religious traditions are presented in a shallow, stereotypical and fact-oriented manner with a focus on history, strict rules and obedience. Another finding is summarised in the discourse "religious positioning as an independent choice". These articulations are understood as a resistance discourse. It seems necessary for the students to challenge what they perceive as dominant discourses of religion and religious life, as expressed in the religious education classroom, in school and in society. For some students, representing their own tradition in the classroom, is discribed as a selfimposed position allowing them to defend and give a more nuanced picture of their own tradition. Most students, however, describe the position of being a faith representative in the classroom as assigned and undesirable.

    Within the discourse "the neutral religious education", teaching is described as tightly regulated by the requirements of neutrality, objectivity and fairness. In the light of students' talk about other school subjects (NO and Philosophy), it is possible to understand ”the neutral religious education” as part of a wider secular, possibly secularist discourse, where the school fosters critical thinking and imposes a strict scientific worldview, where religion and religious beliefs are dismissed, ridiculed and denied. Although the students criticise the teaching, they value the subject´s potential of contributing to tolerance and mutual understanding.

    Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the teachers didactical choices, the classroom practice and the aims of Religious Education.