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  • Margenberg, Karina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Påverkar yrkesprofession synen på elevers frånvaro?: - En kvantitativ studie om vad som orsakar elevers frånvaro och vad som kan få dem till skolan.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]



    Upper secondary school is not mandatory in Sweden, but if one starts an education in Secondary school presence in class is compulsory. Many students are absent from class for different reasons. Absence can lead to drop out from school and that might have an impact on further possibilities to get a job in the future. Schools are criticized by Swedish Schools Inspectorate for lack of planned actions to promote presence in school. It is in my interest to find out the cause of absence and what are the means to promote presence in class. The purpose of this study is to investigate if there is a connection between Principals and School Healthcare Team's view on causes for student absence and what successful actions there are to promote school attendance. The intention is that the result of this study should be looked upon as supportive to School Governors and School Management when it comes to planning to promote development efforts. This study is quantitative and a web survey has been used as a method of data collection from 101 respondents, consisting Principals and School Healthcare Team in 33 schools. The survey contains cases where respondent's answers questions about presence promoting actions. The result does not show any significant connections between profession and the view of cause of absence as well as profession and actions taken to promote presence. However, it is possible to find a consensus in respondent's view on attendance promoting actions.


    Keywords:  upper secondary school, absence, presence, 

  • Andersson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Slånmark, Lois
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Det tysta accepterandet...: En fallstudie om sexuella trakasserier inom hotellbranschen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at highlighting sexual harassment from guests towards employees in the hotel industry, where specifically the hotel manager’s and staff's own experiences are studied and how they handle the phenomenon. The study consists of a completely anonymous case study, where hotels in a medium-sized city in Sweden are involved. Interviews with the managers and a survey with the hotel staff who work close to the guests have been done. The managers' views are compared with the staffs' to identify similarities, but also differences in how sexual harassment from guests towards employees experiences, how and at what situations sexual harassment occurs and how sexual harassment from guests is managed by managers and employees. Definition of sexual harassment in this study has its foundation in the Discrimination Act, which describes it as "a behavior of sexual nature that violates someone's dignity" (Chapter 4, paragraph 5, DiskL).


    According to this study, sexual harassment is experienced differently by managers and staff. The managers at the various hotels felt that sexual harassment from guests towards staff does not occur anymore. The staff, on the other hand, consider that sexual harassment is a common phenomenon in the workplace, and about 70% of respondents themselves have been involved in sexual harassment and 50% have seen someone else been exposed to the phenomenon. Sexual harassment occurs most verbally, but it also happens through body language. The survey shows that sexual harassment occurs in the evening, especially on weekends and in connection with the guest consuming alcoholic beverages. The survey also showed that the managers of the various hotels never received a notification of sexual harassment from their staff. This can be connected to the fact that the majority of respondents choose not to proceed with sexual harassment to their bosses because the employee handles it themselves, accuses himself or is ashamed. This shows that sexual harassment is a sensitive and shameful problem in the hotel industry that should be highlighted even more.

  • Fryszkiewicz, Alicia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Musika, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Be a Pro!: En studie om professionellt bemötande utifrån ett turismperspektiv.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Olsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Karlsson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Turismen och dess effekter på lokalbefolkning: Case Åre2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Turning to the local community and how it is affected by tourism is something that has been researched earlier. In addition, several researchers raise the importance of developing destinations to survive future climate change, thus creating a future for the destination. The theoretical framework also contains elements that explain different effects of tourism and how to manage them. The study aims to explore how locals perceive tourism at their community as well as the community’s development towards becoming a destination with tourism activities the whole year around. For this study Åre will be used as a case. The purpose of the study divides into two research questions. The first one is which effect locals in Åre are experiencing from the tourism on the destination and the destinations investment in becoming a destination with tourism activities the whole year around. The second research question aims to examine how the effects could be used or managed according to the locals. The study also aims to find answers to how locals think that effects can be managed or used even more. This was done through a qualitative study of interviews with locals from the studied destination. These respondents constitute only a small part of the selected population. Therefore do not the respondents represent the whole community, even though we assume this in the study's presentation. The interviews gave us an empirical material in which respondents stated that tourism led to some congestion, more work opportunities and a more alive society. The respondents discussed both the advantages and disadvantages of tourism at the destination. In addition, respondents saw opportunities for housing development, how the locals were to be seen as ambassadors and how the infrastructure could develop at the destination. The responsibility for the development was suggested to be put on the Åre county and its cooperation with SJ (Statens Järnvägar) and the State of Sweden to change the public road in Åre. Furthermore, the material was analyzed to see the respondents' views in conjunction with previous research and to view their opinions from several perspectives. Here, it was found that the majority of respondents had a relatively similar view of tourism and its effects on the destination. That led the study towards the conclusion, where the main conclusion is that locals consider the negative effects of tourism to be less than the positive ones. However, locals need to be part of the development and decisions taken at the destination. This is important in order to maintain the positive view as well as contribute to sustainable development for the destination.

  • Nordell, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Vem leder skolutvecklingen?: Rektorers syn på förstelärares uppdrag2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a study with a social science perspective, where school is viewed as a concrete concept, including people with different positions, who are striving towards set goals. The study examines principals of elementary and upper secondary school views of first teacher assignment. Using survey research, the principals’ perception was examined, in five equally large municipalities. Based on theories of school development, leadership and collegial learning, the following questions were asked:

    A. To what extent do principals and first teacher lead school improvement? B. Are there differences in the perception of the reform depending if f the principal works at elementary school or secondary school? C. Are there differences in the perception of the reform depending on experience as principal? D. Is there a connection between the principals’ attitude towards the career employment reform and the vision of what career employment mean for school improvement?

    Data from the survey was examined using the statistical software SPSS. A factor analysis was first conducted, and then correlation test between variables and indexes.

    To summarize the principals held a positive attitude towards the reform, as well as a positive attitude towards wage spread. However, most of the principals did not think the government should control more than they already do. There were different opinions about if the ordinances as deputies should be more permanent or not, where half of respondents consider it a great deal, and half of them considered that it is better with time-limited ordinances. The principals who perceived teachers as educational leaders also perceived themselves as educational leaders to a greater extent, and had a much more positive attitude towards the first teachers’ assignments. Respondents saw their own role as educational leaders stronger than they saw the first teachers as educational leaders. The longer the principal had been in the profession, the stronger was this view. Principals with a positive attitude towards teachers’ pedagogical leadership and their own educational leadership experience to a greater extent the fact that school development, that is actively pursued, is taking place in classrooms.

  • Johansson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The Emergence And Decline of the Swedish Manga Industry: A Study on the conditions of a Micro Subsidiary in a Global Macro Publishing Context2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study, through ten interviews with a variety of people working with or around theSwedish manga publishing industry, attempts to catalog the rise, decline and lasting effects of theindustrial boom of Japanese manga literature published in Sweden between the years 2000 and2017. The study explores relationship between subsidiary and mother company, as well as to fill inthe blanks of the research field as it pertains specifically to Sweden’s manga scene. The study usesthe theory of the culture industry by Adorno and Horkheimer (1944), together with Herbert Gans(1974) distinction between high and low culture to study this field. Theoretically the study alsooperates on the basis of the conditions that the globalized world awards these two aspects (Lechnerand Boli, 2008).The paper concludes that a mix between industry related issues, such as an over-saturation of themarket and failure to adapt to the global flow of cultural commerce is to blame for the decline. Thistogether with aspects of a cultural nature, such as an underlying disdain for manga as both only for,while at the same time harmful for children proved to be enough to almost entirely kill off mangapublishing in the country over the years studied.

  • Jakku Hjortsberg, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Moder, framgång och kropp!: En kvalitativ analys av kvinnliga TV-karaktärer ur ett postfeministiskt persektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna genusvetenskapliga uppsats syftar till att undersöka hur kvinnor som har barn representeras i populärkulturella dramaserier. Genom ett postfeministiskt perspektiv analyseras serierna i en kvalitativ tolkningsanalys. Resultatet redovisas sedan med inspiration från Erving Goffmans teori om vardagsdramatik, utifrån vilka inramningar kvinnorna befinner sig i och hur de framträder. Karaktärernas äktenskap, moderskap samt åldrande är av stor betydelse i analysen av kvinnlig representation. Slutligen presenteras vilka olika kategorier från Rosalind Gills teori om postfeministisk medvetenhet som kan utläsas i serierna. Resultatet visar att representationen av kvinnorna i serierna är övergripande likt den rådande idealbilden av kvinnan och att femininiteten kan anses vara en till stor del kroppslig egenskap. Resultatet visar också att representation av moderskap framställs kräva olika mycket engagemang och omtanke beroende på om kvinnorna är hemmafruar eller karriärkvinnor.

  • Bergqvist, Erika
    Karlstad University.
    Dokumentationsetik i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om några förskollärares förhållningssätt till förskolans dokumentationskrav2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lohman, Caroline
    Karlstad University.
    Konceptstudie för utbyte av hydrauliska ställdon (heavy duty): Ett projekt för att konvertera hydralik till elektriskt drift på uppdrag av Outotec (Sweden) AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är skriven av Caroline Lohman och behandlar ett examensarbete som utförts under våren 2017 för kursen Examensarbete för högskoleingenjörsexamen i innovationsteknik och design, MSGC12. Kursen ingår inom fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap på Karlstads universitet och omfattar 22,5 högskolepoäng. Handledare för projektet har varit Monica Jakobsson och examinator Leo de Vin. Arbetet har mestadels utförts på plats hos uppdragsgivaren Outotec (Sweden) AB.

    Outotec (Sweden) AB är i grunden ett finskt företag som specialiserar sig på produkter till gruvindustrin för att hjälpa dem med att ta hand om och rena metaller och de är världsledande inom sitt område. I sina produkter har de i dagsläget hydraulik installerat men är nu intresserade av att se om teknikutvecklingen gör det möjligt att ersätta hydrauliken med något sorts eldon.

    För att uppnå målet med att byta ut hydrauliken mot eldon gjordes en informationssökning bestående bland annat av produktanalys, granskning av maskindirektivet och beräkning av effekter och moment. Konceptgenereringen bestod av att kartlägga vilka möjliga lösningar som finns på marknaden för att sedan djupare undersöka vilken lösning som var bäst lämpad.

    Tre koncept kvarstod efter utvärdering med hjälp av elimineringsmatris och Pughs relativa beslutsmatris. Dessa var motor på axel, elektriskt ställdon och kuggstång med motor.

    Till uppdragsgivaren lämnades underlag bestående av komponentlista med dimensioner, pris och kapacitet för de kvarstående koncepten. Detta för att ge möjlighet till att vidareutveckla arbetet.

  • Hero, Rahmani
    et al.
    Donya, Zafar
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Företagens val av väsentlighetsaspekter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]



    Due to increased global crises and increased stakeholder awareness about business’ societal impacts sustainable development has become a central and important issue both for businesses and individuals. As a result of this companies have a responsibility to work sustainably, taking society and environment into consideration, through sustainability reporting companies try to satisfy the expectations of society and obtain legitimacy. The materiality of sustainability issues differ across one branch to another, to study and understand similarities and differences between companies’ selection of material aspects is an important question which previous research has not investigated to a greater extent.

    The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the material aspects which is disclosed in companies’ sustainability reports based on Global Reporting Initiave’s (G4) guidelines. The guidelines used in this study is based on GRI’s (G4) framework, along with theories such as stakeholder and legitimacy theory and also a description of different concepts such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Tripple Bottom Line (TBL), sustainable development and sustainability reporting. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, a qualitative content analysis has been used as a method for reviewing twelve companies' sustainability reports from the apparel and forestry sectors. The empirical section of the study presents the company's materiality analysis, which describes how companies identify their materiality aspects and also gives a further description of companies’ selection of material aspects from the environmental category and social category. The analysis identifies the similarities and differences between the companies' choice of material aspects based on sector affiliation.

    The study's conclusion is that there are both similarities and differences in the selection of material aspects between the companies in apparel and forestry sectors. Significant and recurring aspects for both sectors: emission, effluents and waste, diversity and equal opportunity. Furthermore, the result shows that the aspects from both the environmental and social categories are more widely reported by companies in the forestry sector. An explanation for this could be that sectors with greater environmental impact, such as the forestry sector report more aspects in both categories. Finally, the study shows that the apparel sector publishes more information about the social impact of the business. An explanation for this could be that the apparel sector has greater social impact in comparison to environmental impact.





  • Ekhagen, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Silicon solar cells: basics of simulation and modelling: Using the mathematical program Maple to simulate and model a silicon solar cell2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this thesis was to simulate a solar cell with the symbolic manipulation tool Maple and discuss the strength and weaknesses of using Maple instead of the already known simulation program PC1D. This was done mainly by solving the three essential differential equations governing the current density and excess electron and hole densities in the solar cell. This could be done easily by using known simplifications especially the low injection assumption. However it was also a success without using this particular simplification but the solutions had to be achieved using a numerical method instead of direct methods. The results were confirmed by setting up the same solar cell with PC1D. The conclusion is that Maple gives the user increased freedom when setting up the solar cell, however PC1D is easier to use if this freedom is not needed. At the end of this thesis a brief introduction is also made on the possibility of using Maple with a tandem cell setup instead of single junction.

  • Törnblom, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kursplanens betydelse för eleverslärande: Hur några elevers kunskap om kursplanen i fysik påverkar deras lärande2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of my study is to evaluate what knowledge some Swedish fifteen year old

    students’ in 9

    th grade had about the syllabus in physics, and how they perceive that the

    knowledge affects their learning process. The method, six qualitative interviews which is used

    in the evaluation, is chosen by the principles which can be found in studies of social science.

    One of the conclusions drawn from the study is that if students communicated knowledge

    about what the syllabus is and its purpose, it could be used as an artefact in the socio-cultural

    perspective of learning to improve motivation and increase the learning process. Over all, the

    syllabus is a very small part in what impacts the learning process in the formative assessment.

    Even difficulties in understanding concepts and the differences in concepts as syllabus,

    knowledge requirements and the content of importance has appeal in the process. In the

    perspective of social culture, communication of the syllabus can be seen as a resource in the

    learning processes.

  • Paulsson, Ebba
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    An Alternative History of Psychoanalysis: Fact and Fiction in Irvin D. Yalom’s When Nietzsche Wept2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay provides an analysis of the novel When Nietzsche Wept written by Irvin D. Yalom. The novel takes place during the late eighteen hundred century in Vienna and throughout this essay I explore how Yalom has created a setting, where he has placed some of most prominent philosophers of this time in his fictional world in order to educate the reader about the birth of psychoanalysis and give an alternative version to how it emerged. I argue that Yalom manages to implement different original theories in connection to psychoanalysis to show how the ideas circulating at that point in history contributed to the development of psychoanalysis. The essay compares the original theories of Freud, Breuer and Nietzsche to those brought forward by the characters and illustrates the similarities in order to support Yalom´s alternative version. In conclusion, this essay demonstrates how Yalom has created an alternative version of the development of psychoanalysis by blending original theories with fictive events in order to show how psychoanalysis was a zeitgeist of its time and had more than one founding father.

  • Löfvenberg, Kristofer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utveckling av kontorsstolsmekanism till stolen Saga för Support Design AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten avser ett examensarbete för Högskoleingenjörsprogrammet i innovationsteknik och design på Karlstads universitet och genomförs våren 2017. Uppdragsgivare för projektet är Support Design AB i Sunne.

    Arbetet handlar om att ta fram ett konceptförslag för funktionen som reglerar höjden på kontorsstolen Saga. Stolens gasfjäder bestämmer höjden på stolen och regleras idag med hjälp av en vajerinfästning. Vajerinfästningen medför att stolen endast kan demonteras av en kvalificerad montör och ger upphov till en osäker konstruktion. Projektets huvuduppgift är att kvalitetssäkra mekanismen och förenkla avlägsnande av gasfjäder.

    Projektet bygger på en designprocess som inleds med en förstudie. För att säkerställa en god grund till att utveckla ett hållbart konceptförslag undersöks befintliga lösningar på andra kontorsstolar. Förstudien behandlar även: undersökning av befintlig mekanism, kontorsstolsstandarder, hur man konstruerar mot en hållbar konstruktion och undersökning om hur en gasfjäder demonteras från en mekanism. Resultaten från förstudien används till en produktspecifikation. Ifrån den skapas olika koncept som leder fram till ett slutligt konceptval. Det slutliga konceptvalet är ett konceptförslag som ersätter stolsmekanismens vajerinfästning.

    Konceptförslaget presenteras med skisser, CAD-konstruktion och komponentlisa. Beräkningar, dimensionering och materialvalsegenskaper presenteras också.

  • Leijen, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Semi-kontinuerlig samrötning av ensilerat våtmarksgräs och matavfall: En studie av metan utbyte2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The worlds increasing need for energy and the desire to minimize the consequences of climate change have led to several environmental goals at both national and international levels. Many resources are spent on developing the current renewable energy sources and to find new alternatives. One of the renewable energy resources is biogas. Biogas is formed when organic matter is decomposed which forms carbon dioxide and energy rich methane gas.


    This master's thesis has focused on two areas, the first to examine methane production in a co- digestion process with silage of wetlands grass and food waste from Mosserud biogas plant. Mosserud is located a couple of kilometers west of Karlskoga city. Today the plant mainly uses food waste, manure and ley crops. The wetland grass originates from an area outside of Säffle called Brosjö. In 2010-2014 the Brosjö area was a part of an EU project that promotes bio diversity and threaten animal species, which . Due to this project the harvesting of grass has been made easier and has no use today, but could fit in an anaerobic digestion process.


    The second area was to compare the results with earlier reports on anaerobic digestion and the use of wetland grass. Neldorin (2015),vconducted a study of the substrate mix at Mosserud, whihc lays as a basis for biogas production from Mosserud today compared to the results of this study. The second report studied wetland grass as an additive in pellets. Where Henriksson (2016) had focus on energy consumptions during production of pellets when using wetland grass from Brosjö.


    The laboratory study was made at Karlstad University, the study was a semi continuous wet anaerobic process with mesophilic conditions. Feeding and

    withdrawal of gas was made once a day, using the same lab line up as Neldorin (2015) did. The experiment lasted 10 weeks and 2 different substrate mixtures were used; one with 30% grass 70% food waste and one with 15% grass 85% food waste. The result showed that digestion with 30 % grass mix was preferred. The specific methane production was 0.300 and 0.350 Nm3 / kg VS / day, which was less than those obtained from Mosserud at 0,352 Nm3 / kg VS / day. The total production of methane gas could be increased between 1.5 - 2.6% as there was access to more substrates.


    Wetland grass was better used for digestion than pelleting as it could increase the total methane production, while the pellets produced did not meet the requirements of strength, bulk density and fractional fineness. The problems associated with using grass in digestion are sludge formation in the reactor tank and process stability for a long time, when the pH value fell by the accumulation of VFA.

  • Altmann, Valerie
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Gries, Maike
    Karlstad University.
    Factors influencing the usage intention of mHealth apps: An Empirical Study on the example of Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technology has taken over tasks that were originally carried out by professionals in all different kinds of industries and sectors ranging from self-check in at airports to money transfer via mobile devices. In the healthcare sector the internet has become one main information resource for health-related issues and with the introduction of mobile devices such as smartphones the mHealth market has evolved. With help of mHealth applications (mHealth apps) patients can actively participate in maintaining their health and take over tasks usually fulfilled by health professionals. Despite the advantages of mHealth apps in practice, the download numbers are decreasing and the academic world has not paid much attention to the end-users point of view.

    The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing end-users in their intention to use mHealth apps. In order to answer this research question a quantitative research design has been chosen. The data is collected with help of an online self-completion questionnaire and statistical analysis with the software SPSS. Time and Perceived Usefulness were two out of five factors that had an influence on the end-users intention to use mHealth apps. A key finding of this study is that the mHealth app market is still in its early stage and end-users lack knowledge about it. This paper contributes to theory as well as to practice by providing new research directions for the academic world and insights for app developers and marketers to adapt their marketing strategies in order to meet the customers’ needs.

  • Palmberg, David
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Saade, Christofer
    Karlstad University.
    Hyrespåverkan i köpcentrum2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: The phenomenon shopping center was created to meet all the consumers´ demands under the same roof. Shopping centers have developed over time and currently include different experiences for the consumers. Consumers spend a limited time in the shopping centers and therefore it is important to have a functional tenant mix. An important aspect is to create a steady flow of consumers. This can be achieved by having attractive tenants throughout the shopping center.


    Purpose and question formulation: This study will be examining whether the placement of a tenant affect the individual tenant´s rent. The purpose is divided in to two questions: How do anchor stores affect the rent for the rest of the tenants? How does the actual placement in the shopping center affect the tenants rent and what are the effects on the rent?


    Method: This study has a qualitative approach. The data has been collected from four interviews. When we chose the shopping centers we had a demarcation, the shopping centers were required to have at least 30 tenants to be comparable.


    Conclusion: This study shows that the actual placement of the tenants affects the rents indirectly. The two most important aspects to affect the rent is the flow of consumers and the tenants individual needs.

  • Köllner, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Hofvendahl, Julia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Constructing authenticity: A qualitative study of internal CSR communication2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid increase of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has led to a large numbers of programs that have failed to meet the expectations of stakeholders (McShane & Cunningham 2012). The reason being that stakeholders are becoming more sceptical about firms true purpose for engaging in CSR activities (Arendt & Brettel 2010). It may fuel worries that firms are acting in self-interest and trying to look good instead of doing good and not acting in line with the communicated CSR (Porter and Kramer 2011). Despite this downside, a well-executed CSR can lead to an increased company attractiveness and stakeholder identification. CSR is acknowledged as one of the most important tools for companies to use for creating corporate reputation (Arendt and Brettel 2010).

    This thesis wants to understand and evaluate the development of CSR, given that organizations must continuously look at both the tensions between profit seeking and the conflicting demands from different stakeholder groups. Authenticity can be seen as an appropriate view or perspective since stakeholders want to know if the communicated CSR is a reflection of the organization’s true self (Harvey et al. 2006).

    The aim of this study is to investigate CSR as a marketing practice and to explore how authenticity is constructed in relation to internal CSR communication. By answering this aim, there will be an enhanced understanding of how authenticity can be constructed and how CSR can be communicated within organizations.

    A qualitative approach has been conducted for this thesis. The primary data has been collected from semi-structured interviews at Grant Thornton and the interviews consisted of eight respondents with different positions in the company.

    Five mechanisms have been developed, showing how the work of constructing CSR is carried out, as well as how Grant Thornton integrate CSR into the organisation. Furthermore, three features have been developed showing how authenticity can be created within organizations.

  • Karlsson, Matilda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Svensson, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Arbete med CSR – En självklarhet?: Varför aktiebolag och ekonomiska föreningar väljer att arbeta med CSR samt hur de tillämpar kommunikationsmedel2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies increasingly today choose to focus on CSR and sustainability. Parallel with this development the society in general expand its knowledge about CSR, which makes it relevant to create an understanding of why the companies choose to put resources in this work, and how information from the companies to the stakeholder, is to be communicated in the best way. The purpose of this study is to understand and furthermore explain why limited companies and economic associations choose to work with CSR and how they are using different types of communication paths to share their CSR work with different stakeholder groups. To answer this purpose a qualitative method with semi-structured interviews has been adopted. The respondents represent limited companies and economic associations in different sizes and industries. The interviews have been done over telephone, Skype or by personal meeting. It has been disclosed from the interviews that there exist many different reasons why working with CSR is favourable. The empirical findings have been compiled and analysed with a theoretical background. Some respondents point out the fact of, acting in the same way as other companies are, to be one reason why they are working with CSR. This can however not be seen as the main reason, but it should rather be understood as a way to expose their own company to competition, and thus secure that they will keep up with the existing development in the market. Moreover, the communication to the stakeholders is mostly done by sustainability reports, but also communications channels as Facebook, Instagram and websites are common communications tools. The study suggests that the main reason for both of the company forms to adopt a CSR strategy is to gain acceptance from respective stakeholder group. Example of stakeholder groups are owner, customers, suppliers and members. Furthermore, the claim from the stakeholders is an important factor of why CSR is executed. Eventually, the empirical and theoretical background of the study is summarised in a conclusion where, among other things, the work with CSR in limited companies has been compared with how numerous economic associations have mentioned that they are relating to CSR. The main difference between the two company forms work with CSR is that the economic associations are based on taking care of social responsibility and social interests, while limited companies are carrying out CSR in addition to the company concept.

  • Gumpert, Theodor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Allert, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Risker i den digitala revisionsprocessen: En kvalitativ studie om hur svenska revisorer identifierar och hanterar digitala risker2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of technological improvements, the efficiency of the audit industry increased greatly in the 1950’s. Since then, technological development has increased significantly. The industry is currently undergoing a digitalization process, similar to that already experienced by the society. The audit agencies researched in this study are striving to replace paper-based audits and to be completely digitalized, by using digital auditing tools throughout the entire audit process. Prior research, regarding the digitalization of the audit process, has focused on the advantages or the disadvantages. How the auditors in practice identify and handle digital risks is, however, lacking in this earlier research. The purpose of this study is to understand how auditors identify and handle the risks that digitalization entails in the gathering and use of digital audit evidence. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, the gathering of empirical evidence has been based on a qualitative method. Twelve respondents, nine of whom are auditors and three audit associates, were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Conclusions generated by this study are that IT skills, experience, industry knowledge and the understanding of the company audited are the fundamental factors affecting the auditor's ability to identify and handle digital risks. Furthermore, the risks due to digitalization have neither increased nor become of greater importance than previously, rather the opposite. The advantages resulting from the digitalization of the audit process outweigh the disadvantages. Overall, the digitalization affects the auditor's ability to comment on a company's financial reports and management in a positive manner.

  • Nyberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Ericson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Virtuella servicescapes och tillit hos fastighetsmäklarbyråer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Handell, Madelen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Systematiskt kvalitetsarbete i förskolan: Dokumentation-och informationsverktyget - Pluttra2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a Degree of Master essay in the Degree of Master Programme in Education Leadership and school development at Karlstad’s university. The essay is directed towards school administrators and educators who are interested in systematic quality work and pedagogical documentation in Preschool.  The survey was sent to 250 educators, which have been selected by a total sample of all the Preschool educators in the municipality. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate the proportion of active educators that uses the educational documentation tool Pluttra in the systematically quality work and how the educators look on Pluttra as a documentation tool. Pluttra is used only in preschools.

     Based on a survey I strive to get a picture of to what extent the respondents consider the educational documentation tool Pluttra to del with the systematic quality work. Previous research and results of the survey makes interesting basis to be able to work towards creating better conditions to increase the educators documentation in Pluttra in the systematic quality work.

    The survey shows there are differences in the use of Pluttra in relation to the level of education of participants. Educators consider that there is more time allocated to systematic quality work than time for Pluttra documentation tool. The tool is perceived positively, but only a few educators in each unit recieved training in the tool and there is no enough time allocated for using the tool.



    Systematic quality work, preschool, Pluttra, pedagogical documentation teachers







  • Boström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lärares perspektiv på elevers olikheter: Grundskolelärares uppfattningar om individintegrering av särskoleelever2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate primary school teachers' perceptions of mainstreaming pupils in special needs to distinguish obstacles and the teachers’ perspective on pupils’ differences. Through qualitative interviews with a phenomenographical approach, four teachers' perceptions about individual integration obstacles and opportunities have been analyzed. The result has been sorted into description categories to visualize different aspects of obstacles and opportunities for individual integration. These are then analyzed on the basis of perceptions of pupils' differences in order to distinguish between the teacher's perceptions of pupils in special needs and inclusion and segregation. From an inclusive perspective, all teachers emphasize the social benefits of individual integration. The teachers' perceive individual integration as an opportunity to normalize differences and disabilities. At the same time, teachers perceive that individual integration requires including values in the classroom. Three of the teachers perceive the knowledge-sharing of specialists as more effective in the lesser teaching group. Three of the teachers perceive that teaching of SEN pupils requires individualized tuition and that a shortage of resources constitutes an obstacle for individual integration. The teachers' perceive individual adaptation as a balance between knowledge-orientation and social participation in the classroom. At the same time, they recognize that this adaptations also benefits other pupils. Analysis based on inclusive and compensatory perspectives on pupils 'differences shows that the teachers' perceptions varies and that none of them can be said to represent one perspective. There are both compensatory and critical perspectives in all teachers' perceptions. My analysis shows a connection between teachers' compensatory perceptions and the experienced lack of resources as an obstacle to individual integration while an inclusive view tends to lead in to less material and more value-focused challenges.

  • Mlakar, Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies. 1993.
    Lokalhistoria som upplevelse: Arkiv och museum som resurs i skolans historieundervisning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to discuss and shed light on the possibilities with micro history in the

    classroom. In collaboration with local archives and museums, history can be made fun and

    interesting for students when the purposefulness of the subject is fleeting. To visit the local museum

    or archive and be educated in micro history is an experience and stimulates their creativity and

    learning. In order to answer the research questions one educator at the museum and on educator at

    the archive was interviewed. The study is of a qualitative manner. Results show that there are many

    benefits with a collaboration between museums, archives and schools, but there can also be

    obstacles on the way. Both educators believe that the main purpose of students visiting museums

    and archives is the experience.

  • Jonsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Återvinning av fällningskemikalier ur kemslam från pappers- och massabruk genom acidogenes2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har undersökts om det går att få ut fällningskemikalien aluminium ur kemslam från pappers- och massabruk via acidogenes. Ymp och kemslam blandades i olika förhållanden och pH mättes regelbundet för att kartlägga acidogeneskurvan. Prover av filtrat från slam- och ympblandning från tidpunkt noll och då pH-kurvan kartlagts vara som lägst skickades för analys med atomabsorptionspektroskopi. Ur resultaten som gavs från atomabsorptionspektroskopin beräknades det att ingen signifikant skillnad fanns i mängden löst aluminium mellan de olika ymp- och slam-förhållandena. För att försöka uppnå signifikant skillnad skulle det kunna testas fler olika förhållanden, beroende på karaktäristiken hos slam och ymp.

  • Karlsson, Elin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Vilhelmsson, Olivia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Projektering enligt Miljöbyggnad 2.2: Generella svårigheter och fördelar vid projektering enligt Miljöbyggnad2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hummerhielm, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Biolayer development in a slow sand filter in Ghana: Designing a filter that is benefiting the biolayer development under local conditions2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, the United nations presented the 17 Global Goals that would put an end to extreme poverty, inequality and climate change by 2030. One of these goals was clean water and sanitation. In 2015 1.8 billion people did not have access to clean water. Because of the contaminated water, one million people die every year worldwide. Africa, and especially Ghana, has had a high development in the recent years. The population has grown and more resources are needed. Clean water in Ghana is not a given matter, three million people live without access to clean water. To work towards the Global Goal water can be clean locally. A simple and cheap way is to build slow sand filters, which also are the purpose of this project. These filters purify the water mechanically, chemically and biologically. The biologically purification takes place in the biolayer that grows on the sand inside the filter and it consumes contaminants in the water. It takes about a month for the biolayer to be fully developed and clean the water to its full potential. The positive aspects with sand filters are that people get healthier and can save money that can be invested in education or business. It can also reduce the need for water in plastic bags or bottles and would reduce littering. The companies that produce this water could end their business and air pollutions would be reduced as well.


    During this project, slow sand filters have been tested and evaluated in Sweden and Ghana with the purpose to develop a theoretical filter that benefits the biolayer under local conditions in Ghana, this was of the one aims. Experiments in Sweden showed that the flow decreased with increased sand height and decreased hydraulic head. In Ghana three filters were built with the sand heights 30, 50 and 80 cm to clean 7 litres of drinking water for a family of four. None of these produced drinkable water by WHO’s and EU’s standards.


    The next aim was to understand which chemical and physical factors that effected the development of the biolayer. The detected relations were absolute conductivity, total alkalinity, coliform bacteria and oxidantial reduction potential which were between the biolayer in the 30 and 50 filters.


    The flow rate in Ghana was too high and to lower it, a new diffuser with smaller holes would be built to get the recommended flow of 0,4 m3/m2/h. A too high flow broke the bound between the biolayer and made an uncomfortable environment. A sedimentation should be installed before the sand filter to reduce the variations of the incoming water such as turbidity, suspended solids etc., so the biolayer would flourish. It was not enough dissolved oxygen in the water so the pause period would be decreased to 12 hours to get more oxygen in the filter each day. For a sand filter to work as planned a lot of attention should be given to the filter. It is a system that should be used all the time for the best purification. To build a filter takes a lot of time and it also takes time for the biolayer to develop. If it is not going to be used much, another treatment method should be used.


    The last aim was to evaluate the cost of the materials that could be bought locally to the filter. One filter cost about 130 GHS.

  • Lydell, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Är rivarskivan defekt?: En statistisk analys över rivarskivans energianvändning2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lindgren, Tommy
    Karlstad University.
    Parameterstudie i WUFI om fuktsäkra parallelltak: Vindsutveckling för BRF Länken 32017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bostadsrättsföreningen Länken 3 i centrala Malmö planerar att genomföra en ombyggnation av 4 vindslägenheter i syfte att göra dessa mer attraktiva. Som en del av denna renovering planeras en höjning av innertaket för att öka känslan av rymd. Innan arbetet påbörjas måste en utredning göras där konsekvenserna av takhöjningen undersöks. Detta för att undvika framtida fuktproblem och ökade uppvärmningskostnader. Denna studie kommer att vara en viktig del i detta utredningsarbete.Arbetet inleds med en litteraturstudie vars syfte är att sammanfatta befintlig kunskap som behövs för den vidare utredningen. Efter att all nödvändig teori är på plats fortsätter arbetet med fukt- och värmeberäkningar vilka kommer att utföras med två olika metoder.Värmeberäkningarna kommer att utföras med handberäkningsmetoder och avser att besvara två för ombyggnationen viktiga frågor. -Hur mycket kommer värmeförlusterna att öka till följd av den planerade renoveringen? och -Hur mycket måste isoleringstjockleken öka för att kompensera för dessa värmeförluster? Målet är att se till att uppvärmningsbehovet förblir detsamma.Fuktberäkningarna kommer att använda sig av programvaran WUFI samt ett tilläggsprogram till detta kallat WUFI Bio som används för att bedöma risken för mögel. Denna del av arbetet sker i form av en parameterstudie där olika tänkbara konstruktionslösningar jämförs, dels för att finna en lämplig konstruktionslösning men också för att bidra med kunskap om fuktsäkra parallelltak.Resultatet från värmeberäkningarna visar bland annat att taket kan byggas om utan ökade värmeförluster med några centimeter tjockare isolering. De mest intressanta resultaten från parameterstudien är att hygroskopiska isoleringsmaterial inte gör någon större skillnad vid denna typ av renovering, att diffusionsspärr absolut ska användas och att denna gärna får vara av typen ”variabel ångspärr”. Andra intressanta resultat är att luftspalten och luftomsättningen i densamma inte bör vara alltför stor samt att ökad isoleringstjocklek ökar risken för mögel.

  • Karlsson, Johan
    Karlstad University.
    Koldioxidutsläpp ur ett livscykelperspektiv under 2016: Karlskoga Kraftvärmverk2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016, Karlskoga Combined Heat and Power  (CHP) Plantreleased 46 374 tonnes of CO2 through its energy conversion from household waste, oil and peat to a total of 349 675 MWh of energy distributed by electricity, steam and district heating. (Lidell[1]). RT chips, chips, biomass and bio-oil were also used in the energy conversion process, but according to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (2017) these fuels do not give rise to CO2- emissions. Each year, CHP plants with an installed power of more than 20 MW must report their CO2- emissions to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's Single Act 2004: 656 (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 2004). This report charts CO2-emissions from a life cycle perspective from the fuels used in CHP in 2016. By examining the carbon dioxide emissions from a lifecycle perspective according to the SS-ISO 14040 standard method, this report shows that Karlskoga CHP in 2016 generated 75,067 tonnes of CO2. 38% of total CO2 emissions occurred before the combustion process in the CHP, these emissions derive from production and transport of fuels. The fuels that caused the most CO2 emissions in 2016 were household waste and peat. The report discusses a scenario where plastics in household waste are sorted out and instead recycled. The result of the scenario shows that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced as fossil parts of household waste like plastics are sorted out and recycled instead of combustion. Energy conversion without combustion and production of fossil fuels reduces CO2-emissions significantly from Karlskoga Kraftvärmverkverk. If all fossil fuels were removed and replaced by biofuels, CO2-emissions would decrease sharply, but significant emissions would still remain, as the report shows that production and transport account for a large proportion of total CO2 emissions. In a sensitivity analysis, the report also summarizes the importance of choosing the right emission factor during combustion. Depending on how CO2 emissions are calculated on combustion, it is a major part of the total CO2 emissions from Karlskoga CHP in 2016.

    [1]  Lidell, Per. Kraftvärmechef Karlskoga Kraftvärmeverk AB. Interjuv februari 2017.  <per.lidell@karlskogaenergi.se>

  • Landsberg, Filip
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hansen Andreasson, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utredning av alternativ vid byte av värmesystem: Värme och el i ett system – med fokus på ekonomi och miljö2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    EU has specified goals to decrease carbon dioxide emissions to prevent global

    warming. Heating and electricity consumption of buildings are large sources of

    carbon dioxide emissions, especially in Scandinavia where it is cold and dark major

    parts of the year. By focusing on these two areas a considerable decrease in emissions

    can be achieved.

    There are technics that when implemented will generate improvements. To apply

    these technics they need to be economically tenable. A great opportunity to apply the

    new technics is when an old energy system needs replacing. Bison is in exactly this

    situation and therefore their energy system has been the foundation for this thesis. A

    couple of renewable technics have been evaluated with an economic and an

    environmental perspective so that they can be compared when choosing a new energy

    system. An analysis of how costs and emissions for electricity from the grid vary with

    the time of day and time of the year was also done.

    The results showed that heat produced from wood was best from both perspectives.

    Electricity was more complex. Profitability and environmental impact was dependent

    on a balance at a given time between costs, emissions from grid electricity and selfproduced

    electricity. Generally, it is not profitable to sell self-produced electricity,

    although it has a positive impact on the environment.

  • Löfvenberg, Mathilda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Högerpopulistiska partier i media och partipolitiska valframgångar: En jämförande fallstudie genom en kvantitativ innehållsanalys av Sverigedemokraterna och Fremskrittspartiet i dagspress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years a wave of right-wing populist parties has sweep in Europe. Two of these are Sweden’s Swedish Democrats and Norway’s Progress Party. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to research on how political parties are portrayed in mainstream media and how that may influence political party success in the elections. Content of two daily newspapers over two months before the last parliamentary elections in Sweden and Norway is examined within the study. The method used is a quantitative content analysis. The result was added to the agenda setting theory. From the result, an analysis was conducted to reveal how publication in newspapers can be expected to affect or not affect the selected parties’ successes in the elections. The result shows that the Progress Party receives more space in the daily press than the Swedish Democrats. Both parties are often mentioned in relation to other parties. In several articles, other parties want to show that there is a difference between their basic values, as opposed to the right-wing populist parties. Negative value words appear in the articles, especially in the case of the Swedish Democrats. There are both negative and neutral values in the case of the Progress Party. However, the articles often appear in a neutral way. The conclusion is that the daily press does not seem to have influence over the political parties’ successes in the elections in this case.

  • Josefsson, Paulina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    En indisk förskolas arbete med språk i en flerspråkig kontext: En fallstudie om arbetsmetoder för flerspråkighet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how an educationalist at a preschool in India works with language development in a multilingual context. The purpose of this study is to provide knowledge about how teachers in preschools can work with language development in multilingual contexts. In order to achieve this, an in-depth case study is done which examines an educationalist’s work with language development at a preschool in a multilingual country (India). The examination is based on the didactic questions, what, how and why and the result is then discussed in relation to the terms of Swedish preschools.

    The methods used is textual analysis of teaching materials, interviews and observations. The result shows that a variety of working methods are used, depending on the individual child's level of understanding and knowledge. The teaching methods used can be assumed to be influenced by a multiple of factors, for example by the educationalist’s upbringing and education, his view on children and learning, the limited resources available and the composition of the group of children. Some of the teaching methods used in the Indian preschool can, in my opinion, be transferred to Swedish preschool, directly or through inspiration and adaptation, while others are more difficult.

  • Wilson, Kristina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lärares arbete med språk-, läs- och skrivundervisning i inkluderande skolpraktiker2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how some teachers in the Swedish Elementary School work with language-, reading- and writing to meet the diversity of students within the classroom and these teachers’ opinions about inclusion in these contexts.


    The method used is qualitative, semi-structured interviews. Theory as a starting point is the socio-cultural perspektive on learning.


    The results show that teachers work with certain awareness according to several different methods and strategies within the context of language-, reading- and writing, where all students are included. This study also shows that teachers taken part in further-education has a greater knowledge about inclusive reading and writing methods. There is a great interest among teachers to cooperate and develope their teaching practices.


    The advantages with inclusive teaching practices are that students see and learn to accept each others differences and they are one another’s access in different learning situations. At the same time it is shown that there are practical difficulties that requires knowledge, support and resources. 

  • Lerider, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Här får vi leka fyra!: En studie om pedagogers erfarenheter, upplevelser och lärdomar av att organisera den fria leken i förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to study preschool teachers’ experiences and knowledge of organizing the free play and which consequences it leads to for the children and the activities.  The research has been made with semi-structured interviews as a method. It means that the interview questions were shaped so the respondent could develope the answer. I have interviewed four preschool teachers from four different preschools.

    It emerged in the study’s results that the purpose of organizing the free play was to build social relationship between the children, introducing different kinds of materials and quietude. The organization could help the children reach their zone of proximal development. The preschool teacher’s authority was strong in these organization and it results in instable and supervised ambiences. It arises occasions where the children resisted.

  • Höber, Hans-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Scener ur ett ledarskap: Hur konstrueras en folkhögskolerektor?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    School leadership and the principal’s important role in implementing national goals, efficiency in economy and administration and school development has gained increasingly interest the last decade. Both among politicians and researchers we find a lot of suggestions what kind of leadership is the most efficient to raise standards and solve the problems of decreasing student results and an increasing inequality between schools. 

    In the Swedish context, there is a school form that rarely is mentioned in this debate – the folk high school. On its own path, beside the ordinary school system, the folk high schools during 150 years, has brought education to adults from rural - and working class, served as a knowledge centre for the civil society and, during last years, played an important role in the integration of refugees and immigrants. The leadership in this school form is hardly at all investigated and needs to be highlighted. 

    The aim of this study is to give voice to principals in the Swedish folk high school and describe how they talk, and what they say, about their mission and their leadership. 

    This work builds upon qualitative interviews with eight principals in different folk high schools. Their stories have been processed by using a discourse-analytic approach. I have also identified the presence of different institutional logics working in their organizations. In the analysis, I have used theories made around the organizational field and the social context in schools. 

    My respondents describe a mission that is wide and quite open. The schools are small and the board consists of people who work voluntary to befriend the school. The principle has a large ability to design the mission him/herself. The mission also rephrases in the everyday interaction with the staff and the local culture, a culture where teachers, by tradition, has a lot of independence and great influence. This situation affects the principals’ possibilities and range of action. He/she is at the same time free and bounded. I also find that the principals, increasingly, must deal with multiple institutional logics, that affect ways of thinking, talking and acting, in their organizations. 

  • Linder, Tom
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Optimizing fuel cell channel geometry to favour water transport2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Wrosch, Natalie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Undervisning för hållbar utveckling i åk. 4-6: Lärarnas erfarenhet av undervisning för hållbar utveckling och hinder för implementeringen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, sustainable development has become more and more important in society. The school reflects society which is visible in the requirements within the governing documents for the integration of education for sustainable development into all subjects. The aim of the study is to examine how education for sustainable development is conducted in biology education in grades 4-6 and the obstacles that the teachers encounter. Three middle school teachers who have taught sustainable development in biology were contacted and interviewed. The results show that teachers lack education in education for sustainable development, but strive to achieve a good education based on existing knowledge. The division of the school into different subjects makes it difficult for teachers to work interdisciplinary. In addition, the duration of the lesson and the limited planning time prevent teachers from giving the student a deep understanding of sustainable development. Finally, teachers need opportunities to develop their understanding of the concept and the school's requirements for education for sustainable development.

  • Green, Evelina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Can you pronunce January?: A comparative study of Swedish students learning English in an at-home environment and a study-abroad environment2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether there is a difference between Swedish learners of English in an at-home environment compared to Swedish learners of English who studied English abroad for a year, in their ability to distinguish between certain English phoneme. The method used to investigate was through a questionnaire where the informants had to identify words containing the sounds /z/, /θ/, /ð/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/ and /w/. The results showed that the informants who had been abroad were more familiar with the sounds than the informants who had studied in a Swedish senior high school over the same period of time. It was found that the sound /z/ was the hardest sound to identify, followed by /ʒ/, for both groups of informants. 

  • Wange, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Hur problematiseras jämställdhet?: En WPR-analys av jämställdhetsproblemet i skolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The theme of this thesis is gender equality, and especially gender equality in school. The study assumes a poststructuralist position and aims to demonstrate how gender equality is problematized in the world of education. Through studies of documents and interviews with people in the school world, the representations of the gender equality problem were brought to light. A WPR-perspective helped in the process of revealing how gender equality is “made”. The material were reduced to three categories: gender roles, ethnicity, and knowledge. The research questions were based on Carol Bacchis WPR-perspective: 1) what is the problem with gender equality? 2) what assumptions underlie the problem? 3) What is left unproblematic? and 4) what are the effects?

    The result of the study shows that there are a lot of dichotomies in how gender equality is represented, but the primary representation is a matter of me/others. Through the problematization of boys (that is, students), culture (Swedish “equal” and non-Swedish, unequal “others”) and knowledge (unknowing, hence unequal other teachers) is the problem made someone else's and hence, ones own responsibility fails to represent the problem. 

  • Kremska, Emilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att formas av två nationaliteter: En kvalitativ studie om identitetsskapandet bland individer med dubbelt medborgarskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    Migration over national boarders is common in today’s globalized world. As a result the number of individuals with connections to more than one nation are increasing. But how do they identify themselves? Ambition of this study was to explore how individuals with dual citizenship identify themselves and whether others identification of them has an effect on their own identification. This study had a qualitative approach and used semi- structured interviews to collect experiences from five individuals with dual citizenship.


    This study contains theories of identity based on social constructivism, social identity, national identity, orientation, as well as key notions such as migration, citizenship and dual citizenship. Those are the theories used in the analysis of the empirical material.


    The conclusion reveals that all of the informants identify themselves with both their nations, which demonstrates their hyphen identities. Differences in identifications are presented by three identities; the first is Transnational Identity, where the individual's identification is influenced by all nations, even though there is no longer any connection with the nations. The second is Hierarchical hybrid, where the individuals identify themselves with one nation more than the other. The last identity is Parallel affiliation, where individuals identify themselves equally with both nations while experiencing emotional attachment to both. Furthermore, the conclusion shows that individuals’ identification isn´t predominantly influenced by others perception of them.

  • Edlander, Timmie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Akademiskt fusk: En kvalitativ studie om hur studenter motiverar handlingar som har föranlett disciplinära åtgärder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study that has reviewed decision reports on academic cheating with content analysis as a method, aimed to investigate the actions that has led to disciplinary action and illustrate how students motivate their actions. The result shows that plagiarism is the main act that has led to disciplinary action. In the cheating plagiarism, the approach varies from the fact that the plagiarized texts may originate from students from other universities, classmates or it may be the result of collaboration between students. In the other cheating form unauthorised aids, the procedure is similar to the approach in terms of students bringing unauthorised aids on the examination. What varies is what kind of assistant students bring such as mobile phones, notes or writing sheets. The study can determine that student motivations for their actions may vary but include causes such as mistakes, pressed study situations and lack of resources, lack of time and stress, lack of knowledge and misinterpretations of the university rules.

  • Hallstenson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Ringsåker, Isabelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Mamma är lik sin mamma: En kvalitativ studie av moderskap ur ett livsloppsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of studying motherhood was born out of our own self- perceived experiences as mothers, and in the sense of having a “book of rules” constantly present in the motherly role. Throughout times the motherly discourses surrounding motherhood have included aspects such as caring for and nurturing children, to take care of the household chores and to overall have an all seeing eye over the logistics of the home. In contrast, the men´s primary task is to provide the family with economic capital. ”The good mother”- this pure madonna figure, is often linked to a naturalness discourse which points towards women as created to bear children, giving birth and then finding themselves instinctively knowing how to take care of the newborn. This idea of motherhood as the women´s primary task is traditional in the sense of being rooted in historical contexts. Through a qualitative study, we wish to contribute to a wider understanding of the complex ways in which discourses work and affect the individual lives of women adulging in motherhood, focusing on their own experiences of motherhood. We have chosen to interview nine women from three different families, in each family three generations. Previous research points at two big discourses in western society- the naturalness discourse and the discourse surrounding gender equality. With a focus on these two discourses the study also is carried out with a lifecourse perspective as a way of capture the very important aspect of time. Time is a central part in our attempt to understand the ways in which discourses work, travels and modifies over time. Our findings, watching three generations of mothers reinforces the picture of the work towards equality is both complex and far from done. The motherly discourses are, even today, often characterized by a traditional thinking motivated by and linked to a perception of the natural when it comes to the different roles men and women are attributed. This, in turn, causes a collision with a “modern” discourse surrounding equality. Nowadays the roles embedded in the gender contract is overall more equal than before. Thus you could expect women to, in greater occurence, be freed of the discursive fetters. Despite this, this study points at the opposite direction, leaving us with a feeling of failure when it comes to gender equality. A traditional discourse of “the good mother” is still present in a modified “modern” version. Women in western society therefor are free when it comes to a lot of aspects, but not fully free in the sense of being themselves in the motherly role.

  • Pettersson, Miriam
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Natasja, Dedaj
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Prästers och diakoners emotionshantering: En kvantitativ undersökning av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön i kyrkan relaterat till emotioner2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to describe some dimensions of the psychosocial work environment for priests and deacons in the Church of Sweden. The essay aims to describe the essay occurrence of a spiritual dimension wich can work as additional support in the psychosocial work environment. With a starting-point in Karasek & Theorell’s (1990) demand-control-support theory, Hochschilds theory (1983) in emotional labor and Collins (2004) theory in emotional energy has this essay searched for the answer in to what extent demand, control, emotional work and stress occurs in the Church of Sweden, and to what extent priests and deacons experience emotional energy and social and spiritual guidance. This was made by quantitative method, 95 paper surveys were answered by priests and deacons. The result of the study shows that there is a reasonable demand level and a high extent of control in the Church of Sweden. It occurred that the emotional work occurre in a high extent and the informants in the survey experienced a low stresslevel. Furthermore the existent of social support was high and there were a high grade of private social support. The informants also experienced an emotional energy and a spiritual guidance in a high grade. The conclusion of the essay was that in the Church of Sweden the social work environment was good for the informants in this survey. Social support and the spiritual guidance contribute the informants to be less responsive to stress-issues

  • Larsson, Sofie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Att rösta eller inte rösta, det är frågan...: En undersökning om valdeltagadet under Supervalåret 20142017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Gustavsson, Tore
    Karlstad University.
    Svenska aktörers mottagande av tobaksdirektivet: En studie ur ett 'Goodness of fit- perspektiv' av svenska aktörers mottagande av tobaksdirektivet 2014/40/EU2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to see how Swedish actors adopt directive 2014/40/EU and why it is adopted the way it is - with the example of the Swedish government, Swedish Match and Tobaksfakt, based on the actors input into the European Commission's proposal.

    The study's three research questions are: 1) How does the selected actors influence the tobacco directive 2014/40/EU? 2) In what way do the selected actors adopt the 2014/40/EU tobacco directive 3) Why are directive 2014/40/EU adopted in the way proposed? The study's approach is through a 'Goodness of fit- perspective' see first the actors position then compare this to the new law. In this way see how they are going to adopt the directive. An analyze on argument of three Swedish contributions to the revision of the previous tobacco directive and a comparative analyze will be the methods.

    The conclusion of the study is that the Swedish government and Swedish Match have influenced in some parts and Tobaksfakta have influenced in most of the parts. The study also concludes that the directive 2014/40/EU will be received with adaptation and absorption into Sweden's politics and policy's. Why it is received in this way has to do with the exception that Sweden holds from the ban of oral tobacco in EU but this conclusion can't be fully stated. The Swedish snus's outside has been changed but the inside has not, this effects the pressure from EU to be milder.

    Aspects and areas which further research can focus on are the following: to include different actors, documents or areas throughout the decision process. Further research can also focus on the discourse around snus.

  • Setherberg, Sofie
    Karlstad University.
    Kommunal konsumentvägledning i förändring: En fallstudie över Arvika kommuns nedläggning av den kommunala konsumentvägledningen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis