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  • Gillberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Holmer, Jan
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Kadefors, Roland
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Östebo, Anders
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Institutionella logiker och målkonflikter vid införande av nya riktlinjer för personalutveckling2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personnel supply and development are central issues in all organizations. An analysis was undertaken of the implementation of an individually oriented career development concept within the Swedish armed forces, following a recent HR transformation. The article identifies and analyses factors that influenced the implementation and the conflicts that arose when the development concept was confronted with the regular operations at the operational level. Goal conflicts arose when the concept was implemented top-down in an organization that was unable to fully operationalize the idea. In the article we discuss conflicts and obstacles in terms of colliding institutional and professional logics.

  • Assarsson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå universitet.
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå universitet.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Umeå universitet.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå universitet.
    Gender inequality and adolescent suicide ideation across Africa, Asia, the South Pacific and Latin America: A cross-sectional study based on the Global School Health Survey (GSHS)2019In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no sup3, p. 1-10, article id 1663619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide ideation is a health issue affecting adolescents worldwide. There are significant variations in suicide ideation between countries and genders, which have not been fully explained. Research is especially lacking in countries outside Europe and North America. Gender equality has been shown to matter in other aspects of adolescent mental health, such as life satisfaction, but has not been researched in relation to suicide ideation at national level.

    Objective: To investigate how national gender inequality is related to self-reported suicide ideation among adolescents, and whether this association differs between boys and girls.

    Methods: This is a cross-national, cross-sectional study using individual survey data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, a survey in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the South Pacific, developed and supported by among others the WHO and the CDC; connecting this to national data: the gender inequality index from the UNDP; controlling for GDP per capita and secondary school enrolment. The data was analysed using a multilevel logistic regression method and included 149,306 students from 37 countries.

    Results: Higher national gender inequality, as measured by the gender inequality index, was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of suicide ideation in both girls and boys (odds ratio: 1.38 p-value: 0.015), but for girls and both sexes this was only after adjusting for selection bias due to secondary school enrolment (as well as GDP/capita). Interaction models showed that this association was stronger in boys than in girls.

    Conclusions: National gender inequality seems to be associated with higher levels of suicide ideation among adolescents in mainly low- and middle-income countries, especially among boys.

  • Quennerstedt, Ann
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Tellgren, Britt
    Örebro University.
    Thelander, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Att undervisa om barns mänskliga rättigheter i förskolan och skolan: Utbildningens syften, innehåll och arbetsmetoder2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Setting out from the metaphor of a greenhouse, this project has explored education as a site for children’s and young people’s development as holders and practitioners of human rights. Drawing on a Didaktik research approach and terminology, the core scientific interest of the project has been to examine the aims, content and working methods in the teaching and learning of children’s human rights in early childhood education and compulsory school. The current report explores and answers the research questions:

    - What aims are strived for through the teaching in, through and about human rights? What is the content of the education, and which working methods are used?

    To answer these questions, classroom research was undertaken in four age groups: in early childhood education and in early, middle and late school years in Swedish compulsory school. The researchers studied teaching about children’s human rights, and data was collected by means of interviews with teachers and children and observations of ongoing teaching. The analysis drew on didactic theory, and an analytical tool based on the three didactic questions of why, what and how was developed and used.

    The report first provides a background to the role of early childhood education and school to educate children and young people in and about human rights. Human rights education

    is introduced and elaborated, and placed in a Swedish policy and curriculum context. An account of previous educational research on children’s rights and human rights education in school is given, and the study’s theoretical and methodological framework presented. The findings from the four studies undertaken within the project are thereafter presented in four chapters, each presenting the results from a specific age group. The final chapter presents a concluding analysis and discussion of the collated findings.

  • Cirillo, Emilio
    et al.
    Sapienza University, Roma.
    Colangeli, Matteo
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Thieu, T. K. Thoa
    Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy.
    A lattice model for active–passive pedestrian dynamics: a quest for drafting effects2020In: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, ISSN 1547-1063, E-ISSN 1551-0018, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 460-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the pedestrian escape from an obscure room using a lattice gas model with twospecies of particles. One species, called passive, performs a symmetric random walk on the lattice,whereas the second species, called active, is subject to a drift guiding the particles towards the exit.The drift mimics the awareness of some pedestrians of the geometry of the room and of the location ofthe exit. We provide numerical evidence that, in spite of the hard core interaction between particles –namely, there can be at most one particle of any species per site – adding a fraction of active particlesin the system enhances the evacuation rate of all particles from the room. A similar effect is alsoobserved when looking at the outgoing particle flux, when the system is in contact with an externalparticle reservoir that induces the onset of a steady state. We interpret this phenomenon as a discretespace counterpart of the drafting effect typically observed in a continuum set–up as the aerodynamicdrag experienced by pelotons of competing cyclists.

  • Asghari, Hamid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Schaffar, Birgit
    Helsinki University, Finland.
    The tension between intrinsic and instrumental values in five teachers’ stories from the industrial technology programme2019In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 71-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we discuss a tension between the intrinsic and instrumental value in relation to work and human life. This tension is reflected in the UN Declaration of Human Rights, which regards work as an intrinsic value for a human life, as well as in the (neoliberal) labour market, that values work and workers for their instrumental ends. In the light of this tension, we analyse how five vocational teachers’ life stories express it through descriptions of their experiences, decisions and teaching. The methodological starting point of our study is based on a narrative perspective, where vocational teachers’ stories are at the centre. Our analytical tools are taken from Bamberg (1997), who discusses how people position themselves in their own stories. In light of four positions as outlined by Bamberg, we discuss three tensions: 1) The right to work as universal and under conditions at the same time, 2) Work as a place for belonging under the shadow that only profit counts, and 3) Performing a good job, while balancing professional pride and the concern for oneself. In our conclusions, we suggest that vocational teachers should provide their students with wider civic knowledge about their rights as well as about possible forms of influencing structures in the labour market that vocational teachers are in part preparing their students for.

  • Wagnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Kougioumtzis, Konstantin
    Idrottshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stråhlman, Owe
    Idrottshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Patriksson, Göran
    Idrottshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyanlända barns och ungdomars uppfattningar om och upplevelser av föreningsidrotten i Sverige2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka nyanlända barns och ungdomars uppfattningar om och upplevelser av den svenska föreningsidrotten. Studien har en multi-metod design, där 422 nyanlända barn och ungdomar har besvarat en specialkonstruerad enkät, och 107 har deltagit i fokusgruppintervjuer. Resultaten visar att en fjärdedel av respondenterna deltar i svensk förenings-idrott, närmare en femtedel har slutat föreningsidrotta, medan drygt hälften aldrig har idrottat i en förening i Sverige. Främsta motiven till att förenings-idrotta i Sverige är relaterat till att ha roligt, att det är bra och att det utvecklar det svenska språket. En stor andel av de nyanlända barn och ungdomarna i stu-dien uppger att de tränar eller tävlar i träningsgrupper/lag som är blandat med aktiva från Sverige och andra länder. Av de som för närvarande inte föreningsidrottar uppger drygt hälften att de skulle vilja idrotta i en förening. I övrigt visade deltagarmönstren på att poj-kar deltar i dubbelt så hög utsträckning i föreningsidrott som flickor. Ensam-kommande barn och ungdomar och de som inte har uppehållstillstånd idrottar också i högre utsträckning jämfört med de som anlände tillsammans med sin familj. Studien resultat visade vidare att fotboll, kampsport och basket är de mest ut övade idrotterna i Sverige. Tidigare hade 43 procent utövat någon form av organiserad idrott i hemlandet inom främst fotboll, kampsport och volley-boll. Endast hälften av de som hade idrottat i organiserad form i hemlandet del-tar i föreningsidrott i Sverige. Närmare hälften av nyanlända barn och ungdomar i studien har själva sökt upp och tagit kontakt med idrottsföreningarna och frågat om de får börja idrotta, medan endast 5 procent uppger att de har blivit kontaktade av ledare/föreningar i syfte att locka dem till idrotten. De nyanlända barn och ungdomar som i stu-dien uppgav att de inte idrottar, prioriterar skolan i högre utsträckning, upp-lever sig vara allmänt sämre i idrott, har föräldrar som inte är likna angelägna att deras barn idrottar, och har bristande kunskaper om hur de ska göra för att börja i en förening, jämfört med de som idrottar i en förening. En av de faktorer som stack ut i fokusgruppintervjuerna, och i de öppna svaren i enkäten, var nyanlända barns och ungdomars upplevelser av idrottsföreningar-nas frånvaro/ointresse av att kontakta och försöka värva de nyanlända barn och ungdomar som har en uttalad vilja att börja idrotta i en förening. Andra delar som uppfattades viktiga för nyanlända barns och ungdomars idrottande var att idrottsledaren bör ha en social kompetens och stötta varje individ i ett lag/en träningsgrupp, oavsett vilken kompetens eller tidigare bakgrund individen har. (17) (PDF) Nyanlända barns och ungdomars uppfattningar om och upplevelser av föreningsidrotten i Sverige.

    Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335310441_Nyanlanda_barns_och_ungdomars_uppfattningar_om_och_upplevelser_av_foreningsidrotten_i_Sverige [accessed Oct 11 2019].

  • Fransson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Regeringskansliet, Finansdepartementet.
    Quist, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Regeringskansliet, Finansdepartementet.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Handelshögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    Politisk handlingskraft i en regeringsnära utvecklingsmiljö2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport förordas att regeringen ska inrätta en varaktig utvecklingsmiljö inom kommittéväsendet. Det skulle ge ytterligare politisk handlingskraft. Avsikten skulle vara att bekä­mpa sådana sektorsövergripande samhällsutmaningar som involverar ett system av aktörer och som visat sig svåra att bemästra genom ordinarie styrning och samverkan. Som exempel kan nämnas punktligheten i järnvägstrafiken eller den fara för patientsäkerheten som uppstår när livsviktiga läkemedel saknas vid landets apotek.

    Både i fråga om kvalitet och kostnad kan betydande samhällsekonomiska vinster då hämtas hem. Samtidigt skulle varken utvecklingsmiljön eller de lösningar den frambringar medföra någon belastning på statsbudgeten. Myndigheternas ansvar påverkas inte och deras deltagande skulle inte medföra några juridiska konsekvenser. Inte heller krävs det någon ny mottagarkapacitet eller andra förstärkningar inom Regeringskansliet.

    Med en regeringsnära utvecklingsmiljö skulle Sverige ansluta till en lång rad av länder som redan etablerat vad som ofta kallas för labb eller som mera kraftfullt beskrivs som en insatsstyrka.  Poängen är dock inte att tvinga fram eller att styra utformningen av de lösningar som utvecklas, ej heller att ta över ägarskapet.

    I utvecklingsmiljön skulle aktörerna få den kvalificerade hjälp de efterfrågar för att gemensamt lösa ut frågor som ”trillat mellan stolarna” och där ansvaret tycks ligga på ”ingen, någon, vemsomhelst eller alla”. Nackdelarna med den annars relativt väl fungerande sektorsindelningen och resultatstyrningen skulle kunna minska. En del av kritiken mot den så kallade stuprörsförvaltningen skulle kunna stillas. 

    Idén är inte ny. Andra har tidigare argumenterat för liknande åtgärder. Föreliggande rapport bidrar med en extensiv genomgång av relevant litteratur samt en kartläggning av Regeringskansliets arbetssätt, förmågor och tillkortakommanden. För att undersöka vad myndigheterna själva kan hantera har det även gjorts praktiska försök samt kartlagts vilka förmågor som finns i befintliga svenska utvecklingsmiljöer. 

    Försöken och kartläggningarna visar att myndigheternas egna ansvar att samverka räcker långt. Av naturliga skäl saknar de dock uppdrag och mandat att självsvåldigt anpassa och använda andra aktörers resurser i tjänstesystemet. Många myndighetsöverskridande utmaningar blir svåra att åtgärda när inte alla ställer upp. Myndigheternas representanter efterfrågar därför en aktörsneutral arena på regeringens överordnade nivå där de ges vägledning och professionellt stöd. Något sådant stöd har hittills inte kunnat påräknas.

    Genom kartläggningen av Regeringskansliets arbetssätt blir det tydligt varför idén om en utvecklingsmiljö inte tidigare har tagits tillvara. Kansliet är helt enkelt utformat för beredning av ärenden och styrning och inte lämpat för praktisk utveckling. 

    Förutsättningarna är däremot bättre inom kommittéväsendet. Där skulle den efterfrågade miljön kunna inrättas utan en bortre tidsgräns, som fallet varit med Expertgruppen för Studier i Offentlig ekonomi (ESO).

    Kommittéväsendets relativa närhet till regeringen gör att de aktörer som bjuds in till miljön sannolikt kommer att vilja delta. Genom att låta uppdragen tilldelas av Statsrådsberedningen skulle även många av de oavsiktliga hinder kunna undanröjas som följer av att styrningen är sektorsindelad och primärt inte avsedd för gränsöverskridande frågor.

  • Samuelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Skolforskningsinstitutet.
    Wallin, Johan
    Skolforskningsinstitutet.
    Holmberg, Per
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hirsh, Åsa
    Jönköping University.
    Feedback i skrivundervisningen2018Report (Refereed)
  • Samuelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Brismark Östlin, Anna
    Mittuniversitet.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet.
    Papperspedagoger – lärares arbete med administration i digitaliseringens tidevarv2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka hur lärare uppfattar att reformer för att minska deras administrativa uppgifter har slagit igenom i praktiken. Fokus har främst legat på förändringar som rör åtgärdsprogram och skriftliga individuella utvecklingsplaner. I samband med detta har också relationen mellan illegitima och legitima administrativa uppgifter studerats. Undersökningen bygger på intervjuer och do kumentstudier. Kraven på skriftliga individuella utvecklingsplaner i årskurser med betyg försvann 2013, men data indikerar att ett omfattande arbete med att doku-mentera och informera om elevernas kunskapsutveckling kvarstår på de skolor som tagit bort dessa. Lärare anger också att vissa skolor behållit skriftliga omdömen även när kravet inte längre finns. Extra anpassning är en åtgärd som nu skrivs fram när det gäller arbetet med elever som behöver hjälp att nå kunskapskraven, åtgärden är tänkt som en insats som kräver mindre arbete med dokumentation än ett åtgärdsprogram. Det är rimligt att anta att arbetet med åtgärdsprogram har minskat. Men denna minskning beror troligen på att lärarna nu istället arbetar med den mindre reglerade stödinsatsen ”extra anpassning”.  Reformernas inverkan påverkas av kontextuella faktorer som tillgång till tekniska hjälpmedel och förväntningar från vårdnadshavare.Flera delar av det administrativa arbetet ses av lärarna som en legitim del av deras professionella kärna.

  • Haas, Jan
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Ban, Yifang
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Fusion of ENVISAT ASAR and HJ-1B optical data for urban land cover mapping in Beijing, China2011Report (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Troglio, Elisabetta
    Gumà Altés, Rosa
    Lundh, Christian
    TOWN: Small and medium sized towns in their functional territorial context2013Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2019-10-25 14:00 21A 342, Eva Eriksson-salen, Karlstad
    Vromans, Arthur J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Homogenization of pseudoparabolic reaction-diffusion-mechanics systems: Multiscale modeling, well-posedness and convergence rates2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, parabolic-pseudoparabolic equations are proposed to couple chemical reactions, diffusion, flow and mechanics in heterogeneous materials using the framework of mixture theory. The weak solvability is obtained in a one dimensional setting for the full system posed in a homogeneous domain - a formulation which we have obtained using the classical mixture theory. To give a glimpse of what each component of the system does, we illustrate numerically that approximate solutions according to the Rothe method exhibit realistic behaviour in suitable parameter regimes. The periodic homogenization in higher space dimensions is performed for a particular case of the initial system of partial differential equations posed in perforated domains. Besides obtaining upscaled model equations and formulas for computing effective transport coefficients, we also derive corrector/convergence estimates which delimitate the precision of the upscaling procedure. Finally, the periodic homogenization is performed for a thin vanishing multidomain. Corrector estimates are obtained for a comb-like domain placed on a thin plate in a monotone operator setting for pseudoparabolic equations.

  • Uppal, Charu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Stockholm University.
    Cheruiyot, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    The case for communication rights: A rights-based approach to media development2019In: Global Media and Communication, ISSN 1742-7665, E-ISSN 1742-7673, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the 1980s, international organizations have devised strategies to develop national media systems to make them more diverse and inclusive so as to both exhibit and preserve local cultures. However, these strategies have not always been successful since information has become a commodity, because the interests of private actors prevent equal access to communication rights. This article outlines a perspective on media development from a rights-based approach, derived from a critique of dominant perspectives from international organizations with a strong focus on technology provisions. The article argues for media development based on the right to communication as an alternative to commodification of information. Through examples from Brazil and Kenya, the article illustrates that viewing communication as a basic right can lead to the inclusion of more voices in the public discourse. In addition, a model for media development is proposed, suggesting that the state and national civil society play a significant role in promoting diverse national public spheres.

  • Hudson, Brian
    et al.
    University of Sussex.
    Henderson, Sheila
    University of Dundee.
    Hudson, Alison
    University of Dundee.
    Developing Mathematical Thinking in the Primary Classroom:: liberating Teachers and Students as Learners of Mathematics2015In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 374-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a research study conducted with a group of practising primary school teachers (n = 24) in North East Scotland during 2011–2012. The teachers were all participants in a newly developed Masters course that had been designed with the aim of promoting the development of mathematical thinking in the primary classroom as part of project supported by the Scottish Government. The paper presents the background for this initiative within the context of the Scottish Curriculum for Excellence reform. Particular attention is given to the epistemological positioning of the researchers as this influenced both the curriculum design process and also the theoretical framing of the research study which are both described. The project was set up within a design research framework, which aimed to promote classroom-based action research on the part of participants through the course and also research by the university researchers into the process of curriculum development. The research questions focused on the teachers’ confidence, competence, attitudes and beliefs in relation to mathematics and their expectations and experiences of the impact on pupil learning arising from this course. Empirical data were drawn from pre- and post-course surveys, interviews and observations of the discussion forums in the online environment. Findings from this study highlight the way the course had a transformational and emancipatory impact on these teachers. They also highlight ways in which the ‘framing’ of particular aspects of the curriculum had an oppressive impact on learners in the ways that suppressed creativity and limited the exercise of learner autonomy. Furthermore, they highlight the ways in which a number of these teachers had experienced mathematics as a school subject in very negative ways, involving high levels of ‘symbolic violence’ and of being ‘labelled’.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-25 13:15 11D 121 Andersalen, Karlstad
    Cheruiyot, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Criticising Journalism: Popular Media Criticism in the Digital Age2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, in a variety of digital spaces, many critics and criticisms of the media exist side by side with journalistic actors and content. This dissertation explores the complex relationships between criticisms and actors who define journalistic practice and accountability of the media. The main theoretical argument is that scholars thinking about the ways journalistic actors legitimise criticisms should consider the discursive positioning of the critic (motives and expectations), the evaluative issues (subjects of criticism), corrective (re)action (what journalists do after criticism) and finally, the digital resource (the input of digital technologies and their logics). To interrogate this theoretical proposition, the study employs qualitative interviews with 57 respondents—journalists, media accountability agents and critics—in Kenya and South Africa, and offers a comparison of the two contexts.

    The results show that for journalists to navigate critical discourses in a digital discursive ecology, they a.) identify the most prominent critics in digital spaces, who play an expository role – acting as interpreters to discourses and buffer against incivility, and b.) they mostly employ delegitimising activities that mark professional boundary work in digital spaces, for example, through blocking offensive criticisms and actors from their personal spaces. The digital discursive ecology in which these discourses exists present tensions to professionalism that challenge journalistic authority. Journalists are pushed to conform to the logics of digital spaces, and further social actors online impose their norms on journalistic discourse. In general, the findings show journalistic ambivalence towards digital media critics, as well as a measured engagement with criticisms considered legitimate. There is a nascent discursive struggle among journalists and critics in digital spaces, whose results are overt or subtle corrective (re)actions among journalists that suggest transformed practice. This research contributes to the field of journalism by providing nuance to configurations that exist between journalistic actors and digital media critics as a result of the constant production of metajournalistic discourse in digital spaces today.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-25 10:00 1B306, Karlstad
    Haque, Md. Atiqul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Child Maltreatment in Bangladesh: Perceptions, Prevalence and Determinants2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Like most low- and middle-income countries Bangladesh have no prevalence data on Child Maltreatment (CM) and lack a reporting system.

    Objectives: The overall aims of the thesis were to generate knowledge on CM in the Bangladeshi society and to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors.

    Methods: The thesis is based on four studies. In Study I children’s experiences were explored and 24 school aged children were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was used for data analysis. In Study II 790 newspaper articles on CM from six national daily newspapers were selected during three months in 2014. Data were analysed through descriptive content analysis. Studies III and IV were cross-sectional population surveys. The International Child Abuse Screening Tool for Children (ICAST-C) was translated for data collection. Face-to-face interviews were performed during March-April 2017 with 1,416 children aged 11-17 years. In Study III the prevalence and risk factors of child physical abuse (CPA) were estimated, while in Study IV the same for child psychological abuse (CPsyA) and neglect.

    Results: CM was a common and painful experience with serious physical and emotional consequences but highly accepted by the society. Vulnerable groups were young children, girls, and poor children (Study I). Physical and sexual abuse were the most common types of CM covered in the news articles. One third of the reported cases resulted in death. Boys were victims of physical abuse to a higher degree, while girls were reported as victims of sexual abuse. The identity of the victims was often disclosed (Study II). Approximately all children reported experiences of CPA and CPsyA. Neglect was less reported (Study III and IV). Boys, younger children, victim of family violence, and low maternal education were risk factors of CPA (Study III). Not living with parents, working, family size and victim of family violence were risk factors of CPsyA or neglect. More years of schooling was a protective factor (Study IV).

    Conclusions: The results show that almost every child in Bangladesh experience CM. The studies incorporated in this thesis contribute to the knowledge on CM in the Bangladeshi cultural context.

    Key words: Child Maltreatment, ICAST-C, Public Health, Bangladesh

  • Haas, Jan
    KTH, Geoinformatik.
    Remote Sensing of Urbanization and Environmental Impacts2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to establish analytical frameworks to map urban growth patterns with spaceborne remote sensing data and to evaluate environmental impacts through Landscape Metrics and Ecosystem Services. Urbanization patterns at regional scale were evaluated in China's largest urban agglomerations and at metropolitan scale in Shanghai, Stockholm and Beijing using medium resolution optical satellite data. High-resolution data was used to investigate changes in Shanghai’s urban core. The images were co-registered and mosaicked. Tasseled Cap transformations and texture features were used to increase class separabilities prior to pixel-based Random Forest and SVM classifications. Urban land cover in Shanghai and Beijing were derived through object-based SVM classification in KTH-SEG. After post-classification refinements, urbanization indices, Ecosystem Services and Landscape Metrics were used to quantify and characterize environmental impact. Urban growth was observed in all studies. China's urban agglomerations showed most prominent urbanization trends. Stockholm’s urban extent increased only little with minor environmental implications. On a regional/metropolitan scale, urban expansion progressed predominately at the expense of agriculture. Investigating urbanization patterns at higher detail revealed trends that counteracted negative urbanization effects in Shanghai's core and Beijing's urban-rural fringe. Beijing's growth resulted in Ecosystem Services losses through landscape structural changes, i.e. service area decreases, edge contamination or fragmentation. Methodological frameworks to characterize urbanization trends at different scales based on remotely sensed data were developed. For detailed urban analyses high-resolution data are recommended whereas medium-resolution data at metropolitan/regional scales is suggested. The Ecosystem Service concept was extended with Landscape Metrics to create a more differentiated picture of urbanization effects.​

  • Haas, Jan
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Remote Sensing of Urbanization and Environmental Impacts2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The unprecedented growth of urban areas all over the globe is nowadays maybe most apparent in China having undergone rapid urbanization since the late 1970s. The need for new residential, commercial and industrial areas leads to new urban regions challenging sustainable development and the maintenance and creation of a high living standard as well as the preservation of ecological functionality. Therefore, timely and reliable information on land-cover changes and their consequent environmental impacts are needed to support sustainable urban development.The objective of this research is the analysis of land-cover changes, especially the development of urban areas in terms of speed, magnitude and resulting implications for the natural and rural environment using satellite imagery and the quantification of environmental impacts with the concepts of ecosystem services and landscape metrics. The study areas are the cities of Shanghai and Stockholm and the three highly-urbanized Chinese regions Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. The analyses are based on classification of optical satellite imagery (Landsat TM/ETM+ and HJ-1A/B) over the past two decades. The images were first co-registered and mosaicked, whereupon GLCM texture features were generated and tasseled cap transformations performed to improve class separabilities. The mosaics were classified with a pixel-based SVM and a random forest decision tree ensemble classifier. Based on the classification results, two urbanization indices were derived that indicate both the absolute amount of urban land and the speed of urban development. The spatial composition and configuration of the landscape was analysed by landscape metrics. Environmental impacts were quantified by attributing ecosystem service values to the classifications and the observation of value changes over time.

    ivThe results from the comparative study between Shanghai and Stockholm show a decrease in all natural land-cover classes and agricultural areas, whereas urban areas increased by approximately 120% in Shanghai, nearly ten times as much as in Stockholm where no significant land-cover changes other than a 12% urban expansion could be observed. From the landscape metrics analysis results, it appears that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high density built-up areas in previously more natural environments, while the expansion of low density built-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. Urban growth resulted in ecosystem service value losses of ca. 445 million US dollars in Shanghai, mostly due to a decrease in natural coastal wetlands. In Stockholm, a 4 million US dollar increase in ecosystem service values could be observed that can be explained by the maintenance and development of urban green spaces. Total urban growth in Shanghai was 1,768 km2 compared to 100 km2 in Stockholm. Regarding the comparative study of urbanization in the three Chinese regions, a total increase in urban land of about 28,000 km2 could be detected with a simultaneous decrease in ecosystem service values corresponding to ca. 18.5 billion Chinese Yuan Renminbi. The speed and relative urban growth in Jing-Jin-Ji was highest, followed by the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. The increase in urban land occurred predominately at the expense of cropland. Wetlands decreased due to land reclamation in all study areas. An increase in landscape complexity in terms of land-cover composition and configuration could be detected. Urban growth in Jing-Jin-Ji contributed most to the decrease in ecosystem service values, closely followed by the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-25 13:15 Rejmersalen, 9C 204, Karlstad
    Olofsson, Hans
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Historia på högstadiet: Historiekulturella yttringar i och utanför ett klassrum i Sverige hösten 20092019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How do students use schools´ history education to develop their historical consciousness? In which ways could history education be regarded as a historical-culture expression, i.e. as a part of a society’s interest in the past? This thesis takes its point of departure in these overarching questions. More specifically the research was carried out as a contextualised case study of sixteen history lessons in a Swedish Year 9 class, in the autumn of 2009.

    The contextualisation consists of an analysis on historical-culture expressions in Sweden at that time. Despite conflicting opinions, the major finding was the common view of Sweden as a country that solves her problems in a peaceful way, both in the past, the present and the future. The classroom study was conducted with an ethnographical approach with close attention to teacher-student interactions. The research was guided by an analytical model inspired by the historian Jörn Rüsen’s theories on history learning processes.

    The results show in detail the complicated learning processes in the classroom but also the connection with the historical-culture expressions in Sweden at that moment. One major finding was the tendency to react to the rise of contemporary islamophobia and nationalism in Sweden by making comparisons with the development in Weimar Germany in the beginning of the 1930s.  This tendency was present both in and outside the classroom.

  • Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Explaining differential item functioning focusing on the crucial role of external information: An example from the measurement of adolescent mental health2019In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 1985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An overarching objective in research comparing different sample groups is to ensure that the reported differences in outcomes are not affected by differences between groups in the functioning of the measurement instruments, i.e. the items have to work in the same way for the different sample groups to be compared. Lack of invariance across sample groups are commonly called Differential Item Functioning (DIF). There is a sense in which the DIF of an item can be taken account of by resolving (splitting) the item into group specific items, rather than deleting the item. Resolving improves fit, retains the reliability and content provided by the item, and compensates for the DIF in estimation of person parameters on the scale of the instrument. However, it destroys invariance of the item’s parameter value among the groups. Whether or not a DIF item should be resolved depends on whether the source of the DIF is relevant or irrelevant for the content of the variable. The present paper shows how external information can be used to investigate if the gender DIF found in the item “Stomach ache” in a psychosomatic symptoms scale used among adolescents may reflect abdominal pain because of a biological factor, the girls’ menstrual periods. Methods: Swedish data from the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) collected in 2005/06, 2009/10 and 2013/14 were used, comprising a total of 18,983 students in grades 5, 7 and 9. A composite measure of eight items of psychosomatic problems was analysed for DIF with respect to gender and menstrual periods using the Rasch model. Results: The results support the hypothesis that the source of the gender DIF for the item “Stomach ache” is a gender specific biological factor. In that case the DIF should be resolved if the psychosomatic measure is not intended to tap information about abdominal pain caused by a gender specific biological factor. In contrast, if the measure is intended to tap such information, the DIF should not be resolved. Conclusions: The conceptualisation of the measure governs whether the item showing DIF should be resolved or not. Keywords: Differential item functioning (DIF), Resolving for DIF, Psychosomatic problems, Rasch model, Source of DIF, Validity and reliability, HBSC

  • Public defence: 2019-10-25 10:00 Föreläsningssal 4 (F134), Falun
    Stormats, Karen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Högskolan Dalarna.
    Flipp i tal och handling: En fallstudie om undervisningsmetoden flipp i tre gymnasielärares tal och handling2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flipped Classroom (flipp) is described in both school and scientific contexts as a new teaching method where the individual pupil and her active learning is placed at the center and where lesson time to a greater extent is used for discussion and laboratory work, while information gathering takes place outside lesson time via ICT. Flipp has in recent years become widely spread in Sweden, which is why it is interesting to investigate flipp in a Swedish context. This has so far been made to a very limited extent. This study aims to deepen the understanding of flipp as a teaching method as the method appears in the speech and actions of upper secondary school teachers who claim they use flipp when they teach. The study addresses three general issues. First, teachers' purposes with flipp are explored, second, the roles that emerge in flipped teaching is investigated and third, individualization in teaching where flipp is applied. The study is a case study based on interviews and observations with three upper secondary school teachers who flip their teaching. The study is based on social constructivist theory formation and Dewey's progressivist philosophy of education is the discussion partner in this study. Previous research suggests that in the development of flip, inspiration was drawn from pedagogical ideas from the early 1900s, which makes it advisable to discuss possible points of contact between flipp as expressed in the case study, and progressivism. Previous research presents flipp as a method for creating flexibility and individualization as well as a method that helps the teacher and students spend more time together for laboratory work and discussions. The teachers express that flipping helps the students to become active during lessons. Observations, however, show that there are significant problems with the students not preparing for the lesson to the extent that was expected, which will have negative consequences for the opportunities to work and discuss during lessons as intended. The study thus shows evidence that there is a discrepancy between the image that the teachers produce and the image of the flip that has been observed.

  • Högberg, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Gameful experiences: The not so painful road to gainful behavior2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to investigate the experiences that users make when using gamified services and the effect that such experiences have on the targeted behavioral outcomes. Considerable attention is dedicated to the gameful experience, since this experience is necessary for gamification to affect the target behavior. Moreover, the effectiveness of gamification at triggering different motivational mechanisms and the role of engagement is investigated.

    This dissertation contains three papers. Paper 1 uses a mixed-methods approach to develop a model and a measure of the gameful experience. Paper 2 uses a field experimental approach to investigate the effect of gamification on a decision to use offers in a store, and the role of engagement for this effect to occur. Finally, Paper 3 uses a field experiment to investigate the contribution of gamification to value creation in stores and how such value creation relates to brand engagement.

    The first main finding is a model of the gameful experience that includes the dimensions of accomplishment, challenge, competition, guided, immersion, playfulness, and social experience, and the instrument for measuring this experience. The second main finding is that challenge-based gamification can induce positive affect, which can influence evaluative judgments (thus utilizing the affective quality of System 1 to change the target behavior) and, ultimately, brand engagement. However, such challenge-based gamification does not seem to be effective when aiming to affect the biased System 1 through effort justification. The third main finding is the results that indicate that a user needs to be engaged in order for a gamified service to work properly.

  • Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Questionnaire 12th grade short version2019Other (Other academic)
  • Svanberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Fler vägar till G: Hybridexamination med salsskrivning och duggor2018In: Studentaktiva lärande- och examinationsformer: Bidrag från universitetspedagogisk konferens 2017 / [ed] Madelaine Johansson och Lena E. Johansson, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2018, p. 109-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inslag av elektroniska spelelement inom högre utbildning har under 2000-talet vuxit fram som en effekt av målsättningen att med bibehållen genomströmning möta behovet av flexibelt upplagda utbildningar bland en stor och växande grupp studenter, som dels påbörjar universitetsutbildning med en varierande grad av studievana och studiemotivation, dels alla vuxit upp under den digitala tidsåldern.

    Syftet med spelifieringen, som termen lyder, är att med spelliknande inslag under utbildningen hjälpa studenten att internalisera yttre motivatorer för att fullfölja studierna. Litteraturen på området vittnar dock om åtskilliga lösningar som haft en oklar eller utebliven effekt på studieresultaten.

    I artikeln redovisas de bedömda effekterna av ett spelinslag, använt under sammanlagt åtta år inom ramen för författarens egen undervisning i historia på grundnivå. Genom att kombinera en traditionell salsskrivning med möjligheten att innan skrivningen erhålla ett begränsat antal poäng från några frivilliga övningar, kallade duggor, har utvecklats en examinationsform kallad hybridexamination. Poängen från duggorna, som ansluter till kursinnehållet med en växande grad av komplexitet, adderas till poängsumman från salsskrivningen.

    En undersökning av resultatet från fyra av de tentamenstillfällen inför vilka duggor kunde lämnas in, indikerar att studenter som lämnade in många eller alla duggor, vid tre av tillfällena presterade väsentligt bättre på salsskrivningen än studenter som lämnade in få eller inga duggor, bonuspoängen från duggorna oräknad. Resultatet tolkas som att arbetet med duggorna indirekt ökar förtrogenheten med kursinnehållet i sin helhet. Även om resultatets signifikans inte har fastställts, uppmuntrar det till fortsatt utveckling av konceptet hybridexamination i nya utbildningsmiljöer.

  • Karlsson, Jan Ch
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Recension av boken Job Quality in an Era of Flexibility. Experiences in a European Context av Tommy Isidorsson & Julia Kubisa (Red.)2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 88-92Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Ståhl, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för pedagogik och sociologi.
    Arbetets estetik2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 67-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna essä undersöker hur arbete har visualiserats och presenterats i bildkonst, musik och litteratur. I texten ges exempel från historien, samtiden och framtiden. Från exemplen kan två teman identifieras. Det första berör hur estetiska uttryck förmedlar bakomliggande kulturella, politiska eller ideologiska idéer om arbete, exempelvis genom propagandakonst eller skildringar av prekära arbetsförhållanden. Det andra berör relationen mellan arbete och resten av livet – här ser vi en sammansmältning av arbete och identitet, illustrerat av influerare och livsstilsbutiker, där arbete endast särskiljs från andra aktiviteter genom dess kommersialisering – och hur detta i sin tur ändrar aktivitetens karaktär.

  • Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lämna yrket eller stanna kvar? En studie om nya poliser2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 6-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker vilka faktorer som bidrar till att yngre poliser i Sverige väljer att lämna yrket. Studien följer en kohort (N=717) av yngrepoliser. Data från antagningen till polisutbildningen (T1-2008), efter ett årsarbete (T2-2011) och efter sju års arbete (T3-2017) används för statistiskaanalyser baserade på en bred uppsättning variabler. Resultaten visar attförhållandevis få poliser lämnat yrket (7,4%) och att det finns få skillnadermellan de som stannat respektive lämnat yrket. Låg organisationssamhörighetefter ett års arbete var den enskilt starkaste prediktorn av frivillig uppsägning.Åtgärder som stärker organisationssamhörigheten tidigt i karriären bör därförprioriteras.

  • Bergman, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gillberg, Gunnar
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Att lämna yrket eller stanna kvar, organisationskultur och sexuella trakasserier, delat ledarskap samt arbetets estetik2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tre av detta nummers artiklar berör organisation på ett eller annat sätt.Det handlar om varför poliser väljer att frivilligt säga upp sig och lämnayrket; sexuella trakasserier och hur sådana hanteras i mansdomineradeorganisationer samt erfarenheter av delat ledarskap i skolväsendet. Den sistaartikeln utgörs av en essä om hur arbete har framställts i bildkonst, musik ochlitteratur. Detta nummer av Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv avslutas med att JanCh Karlsson recenserar boken Job Quality in an Era of Flexibility. Experiences ina European Context.

  • Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Crisis or transition? Risk and resilience during the Late Medieval agrarian crisis2019In: Settlement change across medieval Europe: Old paradigms and new vistas. / [ed] Brady, Niall & Theune, Claudia, Leiden: Sidestone Press, 2019, p. 171-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Viking Age and Early Middle Ages (c. 9th-13th centuries), outland-using peasants in the hilly and forested areas of inner Scandinavia were making a good living by producing commodities for sale in external markets. Some were using the outland intensively, relying on commodity production. Others used the outland extensively in diverse ways and balanced with agrarian activities. Trade networks broke down in the 13th century, and intensive outland-using peasants had to restructure their economy, placing greater emphasis on cereal cultivation and cattle breeding. The extensive outland-using peasants did not restructure their economy in the same way. The Late Medieval Agrarian Crisis with the Black Death brought death and the desertion of farmsteads. However, permanent desertion of settlements was not noticeable in intensive outland-using communities, whereas there are far more deserted settlements in extensive outland-using communities. These communities were less resilient than the intensive outland-using communities, who had built new capacities when restructuring the economy. Many of the deserted settlements appear to have come under the ownership of the vicarages, the only agents of feudalism in the investigated areas. Crisis feudalism appears to have been an important factor in permanent desertion after the Late Medieval Agrarian Crisis.