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  • Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Brijs, Jeroen
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Näslund, Joacim
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Wengström, Niklas
    Gothenburg University, Sweden; Swedish Anglers Association, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adamsson, Marie
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Závorka, Libor
    Gothenburg University, Sweden; Toulouse University, France.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Höjesjö, Johan
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Encystment of parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) larvae coincides with increased metabolic rate and haematocrit in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2017In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, p. 1353-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gill parasites on fish are likely to negatively influence their host by inhibiting respiration, oxygen transport capacity and overall fitness. The glochidia larvae of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (FPM, Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)) are obligate parasites on the gills of juvenile salmonid fish. We investigated the effects of FPM glochidia encystment on the metabolism and haematology of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus,1758). Specifically, we measured whole-animal oxygen uptake rates at rest and following an exhaustive exercise protocol using intermittent flow-through respirometry, as well as haematocrit, in infested and uninfested trout. Glochidia encystment significantly affected whole-animal metabolic rate, as infested trout exhibited higher standard and maximum metabolic rates. Furthermore, glochidia-infested trout also had elevated levels of haematocrit.The combination of an increased metabolism and haematocrit in infested fish indicates that glochidia encystment has a physiological effect on the trout, perhaps as a compensatory response to the potential respiratory stress caused by the glochidia. When relating glochidia load to metabolism and haematocrit, fish with low numbers of encysted glochidia were the ones with particularly elevated metabolism and haematocrit. Standard metabolic rate decreased with substantial glochidia loads towards levels similar to those of uninfested fish. This suggests that initial effects visible at low levels of encystment may be countered by additional physiological effects at high loads, e.g. potential changes in energy utilization, and also that high numbers of glochidia may restrict oxygen uptake by the gills.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-26 13:00 Nyquistsalen, 9C 203, Karlstad
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science.
    Navigating in the Midst of Uncertainties: Challenges in Disaster Risk Governance in Mozambique2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters cause heavy losses for societies and may quickly erode any development efforts. Consequently, disaster risk reduction (DRR) is an integral part of development work that should be addressed at multiple levels. Global DRR frameworks, scholars and practitioners all advocate disaster risk governance (DRG) strategies that are multi-stakeholder, polycentric and multisectoral. While various substantive knowledge gaps and questions arising from multiple risks and the crosscutting nature of DRR have been relatively well addressed, uncertainties relating to multiple DRR actors operating and collaborating at different scales have gained less attention in previous studies.

    This thesis investigates the uncertainties in DRG in Mozambique, a low-income country that regularly faces natural hazards. These hazards often cause heavy loss of life and livelihoods and economic damage. The four articles that together constitute this thesis focus on different sets of uncertainties and factors that have constrained or allowed Mozambique to take major steps in this policy area. By exploring strategic and institutional uncertainties related to stakeholder involvement, coordination and policy disputes, this thesis reveals different challenges and opportunities that affect DRR policymaking in Mozambique.

    This thesis concludes that Mozambique has managed to take important steps in DRR. However, as a consequence of the different challenges to DRR practice in Mozambique, policymaking can be short-sighted and makes slow progress, thus increasing the disconnect between theory, policies and practice. This thesis thus argues that DRG research and practice need to better take into account power-relations; coordination and capacity issues; and responsibilities and transparency across scales, both in Mozambique and elsewhere.

  • Eriksson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Karlstad University, University Library.
    Nilsson, Inga-Lill
    Karlstad University, University Library.
    All inclusive: Ett utvecklingsarbete för att stödja studenters akademiska informationskompetens2018In: Studentaktiva lärande- och examinationsformer: Bidrag från universitespedagogisk konferens 2017 / [ed] Johansson, M. & Johansson L.E., Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2018, 1, p. 65-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens digitala medielandskap har dramatiskt ökat betydelsen av studenters medie- och informationskompetens (MIK), inte minst vad gäller vetenskaplig information och det sammanhang den publiceras i. Detta är också ett grundläggande mål för högre utbildning enligt Högskoleförordningen. Begreppet MIK innefattar flera av de kompetenser som biblioteken undervisar i och som krävs för att använda och kommunicera information i de akademiska studierna. För att säkerställa att alla grundstudenter har samma möjlighet att träna dessa färdigheter har Karlstads universitetsbibliotek under året startat ett utvecklingsarbete som bland annat mynnat ut i en webbkurs i akademisk informationskompetens. Kursen kommer att finnas tillgänglig i lärplattformen Canvas och innehålla moduler som kan användas separat men även som en del av ett mer studentaktivt och flexibelt lärande för att komplettera övrig undervisning. Förutom de färdigheter som traditionellt kopplas till begreppet informationskompetens: informationssökning, referenshantering och källkritik, kommer kursen även att omfatta nya akademiska informationskompetenser som upphovsrätt och akademiskt skrivande. En förutsättning för en lyckad implementering av kursen är ett ökat samarbete mellan bibliotek och lärare kring behov, utformning och integrering i studenternas ämneskurser.

  • Magnuson, Mark
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    A Swedish dilemma: Aging during the search for a national insurance, 1884-19132018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-wage holders made up a significant portion of Sweden’s population in 1900. Yet, there are surprisingly few studies covering their formative role in the universal coverage of Sweden’s Pension Act of 1913. Yet, how are historians to discern nostalgic rhetoric of reformers from normative rural elderly household structures without contextual evidence? The greatest challenge to defining what was normative has been the search for singular, national household narrative despite the local and regional nature of earlier welfare and the processes of monetarization used to innovate it.

    This study lifts uneven monetarization as an underlying national insurance dilemma. This dilemma shifted focus from workers to a universal system due to elderly incomes remaining divided between wage-labor and intergenerational household-based forms. It supports and expands on prior literature suggesting that the variation in family and household income that altered the formation of a single state workers insurance, likely prevented a poor-relief crisis prior to state reforms. Yet this study claims that families did not address household shortcomings through traditional means but collaborating with the Swedish state, which was actively nationalizing financial services through the postal service extended to municipalities. Until the financial innovations of the postal services, money-exchange and formal banking was slow to integrate beyond central places, thus limiting life-cycle strategies to land based.

    In addressing Gräsmark, Värmland as a “best-case” smallholder-dominated municipality, the study reverses earlier persistent beliefs that emigration and aging were national problems -and not solutions. Gräsmark shows evidence of the transitional effects of adult-child mass migration and household adaptions to life-cycle income strategies though expanding debt. Likewise, the results highlight the need for income flexibility dependent on age cohorts as well as spatial-temporal variation in order to avoid a local poor-relief crisis during the late 19th and early 20th century.

  • Kaluza, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Sjukskrivnas arbetsbörda: Arbetande medborgare möter en kundorienterad byråkrati2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is based on a study of Sweden’s Social Insurance Agency. Theoretically, it takes its departure in the literature on working consumers and customer-oriented bureaucracies. The following paradox constitutes the basis of this dissertation: in order to qualify for health insurance, the citizen’s ability to work must be limited while it is presupposes that his/her can work within the system, in order to gain access to it. In explaining how this paradox is managed, the aim of this dissertation is to map out and explain the practices that working citizens and customer-oriented bureaucrats carry out when putting health insurance into practice. This results in the assertion that work consists of eight practices divided up into two themes; support practices and control practices. On the basis of practice theory, it is then discussed how these practices interact and what occurs when the interaction fails. The dissertation also identifies the strategies correction, pressure, and taking over, which actors use when interaction between practices fails.

    This dissertation contributes with new knowledge developing the concept of working citizens, and by the mapping out the work done when putting public services into practice. This work is partly stimulated by citizens’ worries about doing something wrong. Caseworkers use citizens’ work to ease their own working situation by means of what is designated, in the dissertation, as bureaucratic co-creation. Development of this concept makes up the dissertation’s next key research contribution. Through this concept, the theory of customer-oriented bureaucracies is further developed. The concept also creates a basis for a critical discussion on the concept of co-creation in service research, which presupposes that citizens are freely able to influence the outcome of the processing of their case. The dissertation shows, however, that co-creation for citizens consists exclusively of routine work and control practices.

  • Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Gamifying the news: Exploring the introduction of game elements into digital journalism2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For over a century, crosswords, puzzles, and quizzes have been present in newspapers. Digital journalism has only increased the trend of integrating game elements in news media, often blurring the traditional boundaries between news and games.

    This dissertation aims to explore and understand how and why news organizations and newsworkers use gamification in digital news websites and to analyze the objectives behind its implementation in news production. The importance of trying to understand this development stems from the different roles that digital games and news have in contemporary democratic societies. While journalism is often regarded as the main source of information for the public to act as citizens, digital games predominantly remain considered as entertainment media.

    Drawing from media sociology and new institutionalism, this study engages with the literature on converging processes of popularization and professionalization of journalism, and how different institutional logics of gamification and journalism interact. Methodologically, this qualitative multiple case study analyzes four diverse news organizations (the Guardian, Bleacher Report, the Times of India, and Al Jazeera), interviewing 56 newsworkers, and conducting game-system analysis of their respective gamified systems.

    The findings suggest that while news organizations often frame their motivations within the celebratory rhetoric of gamification, a deeper look into the material manifestations of gamified news systems tend to problematize the empowering claims of gamification. Instead, a complex interplay between the professional and commercial logics of journalism and the hedonic and utilitarian logics of gamification shapes how news organizations and newsworkers implement gamified systems. This dissertation contributes to a larger debate on the friction professionalism and the market, on institutional interaction, and the increasing transgression of journalistic institutional borders.