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  • Karlsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Di Stasi, Giovanni
    Computer Science Department, University “Federico II” of Naples, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Avallone, Stefano
    Computer Science Department, University “Federico II” of Naples, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy.
    An Aggregation Aware Multi-path Forwarding Paradigm for Wireless Mesh Networks2011In: IEEE MASS 2011. Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems, IEEE Computer Society, 2011, p. 765-770Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In multi-radio wireless mesh networks, a networkdevice simultaneously transmits packets over different channelsby using multiple radios. Such frequency diversity not only increasesthroughput but makes multi-path routing approaches extremelyinteresting. This is because the channel diversity reducesthe risk for intra- and inter-flow interference. A fundamentalproblem to solve is the forwarding strategy which determineswhich packets to be sent over what multi-path segments atany given time. Ideally, the forwarding strategy should scheduleflows according to the capacity constraints imposed by thechannel assignment. However, the possibility to improve MAClayer efficiency by aggregating small packets into larger onesis reduced when packets are forwarded to different next-hops.In this paper, we develop a novel packet forwarding strategyfor multi-radio mesh networks that combines the benefits ofmulti-path routing with packet aggregation. In our cross-layerapproach, we effectively trade-off aggregation opportunities withchannel diversity. Simulation results show that our approach canimprove network throughput and delay by up to 15 percentand 25 percent, respectively, compared with aggregation unawareforwarding strategies.

  • Jeppsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). SMEER.
    Sampublicering med studenter – ett sätt att stärka forskningsanknytningen i lärarutbildningen2019In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 98-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärarutbildningen uppmärksammas inte sällan för att dess studenter har svårt att uppnå den nivå av akademiskt skrivande som krävs, inte minst vid examensarbeten. Som kontrast till den beskrivningen vill vi lyfta fram motexempel, där lärarstudenters examensarbeten och andra skrivuppgifter har nått en sådan kvalitet att de genom samförfattande med handledare och andra medförfattare har kunnat omarbetas och publiceras som vetenskapliga artiklar eller i mer lärartillvända forum, i vårt fall inom fysikdidaktik. Samförfattande med lärarstudenter kan på så vis vara ett sätt att stärka forskningsförankringen i lärarutbildningen. Förutsättningarna för att kunna lyckas med detta diskuteras, bland annat utifrån att under lärarutbildningen gradvis låta studenterna inlemmas i en praktikgemenskap av ämnesdidaktisk forskning.

  • Ma, Li
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Rizzi, Ester
    Center for Demographic Research, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
    Turunen, Jani
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Childlessness, sex composition of children and divorce risks in China2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 41, p. 753-780, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Studies on children and divorce in China find a negative association between the number of children and divorce and a protective effect of having a son. Nonetheless, we have little knowledge of how these associations have developed over time.

    OBJECTIVE

    This study explored the association of the number and sex composition of children with divorce risks in China over the period 1980–2012.

    METHODS

    We conducted an event history analysis of longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies.

    RESULTS

    Childless couples had an increasingly higher divorce risk than couples with children over our observation period. In the 2000s, the divorce risk of childless couples in both urban and rural areas was approximately five times that of one-child parents. The role of the child’s gender differs for urban and rural one-child parents, with no significant effect on the divorce risk of urban parents and different effects over time for rural parents.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Our findings show that ending a marriage when having no children has become an increasingly pronounced trend. Furthermore, partially due to the rapid socioeconomic and demographic progress and the rise of girls’ empowerment, the child’s gender has lost importance for the divorce risk of urban parents.

    CONTRIBUTION

    This study enriches our knowledge about the association between children and divorce risks in a rapidly developing society. Indirectly, the study also informs us about the evolution of son preference in China.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 10:00 1A 305, Lagerlöfsalen, Karlstad
    Granrud, Marie Dahlen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Mental health problems among adolescents: Public health nurses' work and interprofessional collaboration within the school health service2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this thesis was to study adolescents with mental health problems, factors that are associated with mental health problems, visits to the public health nurse (PHN), and how PHNs and other professionals experience the collaboration in school and school health services related to mental health problems.

     

    Methods: Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Study I included cross-sectional data from Ungdata, with 8052 adolescents. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. Study II included individual interviews with 12 boys and qualitative content analysis was used. In study III, four focus group interviews were conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis. In study IV, 18 PHNs were individually interviewed and a phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the interviews.

    Results: Gender differences were seen in the symptoms of depression, family conflicts and economics, lifestyle habits, school satisfaction and use of school health services with girls reporting in a higher proportion than boys. Boys described barriers such as finding the PHN inaccessible, difficulty talking about mental health problems and uncertainty about confidentiality when visiting the PHN. Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is important for identifying adolescents with mental health problems. Accessibility, having different obligations, lack of criteria and goals and being dependent on others were described as affecting IPC.

    Conclusion: There are differences in boys and girls with girls reporting more mental health problems and visiting the school health service more often than boys. Boys described several barriers to visiting the PHN, but, when these barriers were crossed, the boys experienced the visit as positive. Several factors affected IPC in schools and the school health services. There were variations in the collaboration experienced, but when it worked it was experienced as positive.

  • Leguillon, Prune
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Using infrared cameras in education2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous researches about the use of Infrared cameras in education are presented. The first part is more focused on Physic applications. Different approaches are discussed like letting the students discovering phenomena by following a protocol or letting them discover it by themselves in an open-ended lab. The question about at which grade are Infrared cameras useful is also discussed. Then the second part deals with applications of Infrared cameras in Biology. It talks about many fields like plants and medicine for both humans and animals. After that, infrared pictures which were taken during biological phenomena exploration are presented and analyzed. It deals with some everyday biological phenomena and some explanations are given. To conclude, a presentation of some basic phenomena which are made viewable by the Infrared camera is done and some advantages and drawbacks of this device are explained.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 13:00 11D 257, Karlstad
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Extending Access: Perspectives on Business Model Innovation in Water and Sanitation Service Provision2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations are attempting to improve the well-being of people living in poverty, whether it be philanthropic, through offering transformative services, or buying into the doing well by doing good ethos of corporate Base of the Pyramid (BoP) strategies. Some of these efforts are being directed towards extending access to safely managed water and sanitation services to everyone. There are many factors that contribute to the complexity of reaching universal water and sanitation coverage including limited finance, cultural practices, and localized effects of climate change. Once a community has access, sustaining it can be hindered by poor design, maintenance, or governance.

    The aim of this dissertation is to examine the roles of business models and business model innovation in providing and later scaling water and sanitation services in low-income countries. In doing so, it brings together poverty alleviation and business model theories to address barriers specific to the water and sanitation sectors. This dissertation is a compilation of seven different papers that follow a case study approach. The cases used in these studies are of non-governmental organizations, social businesses, small and medium-sized enterprises, and multinational enterprises that work in the water and sanitation sector in low-income countries.

    The findings of this dissertation span theoretical levels: business models, business model innovation, and capability development and sectors: water and sanitation. Each paper contributes to the intersection of at least two of these factors, e.g., by classifying business models and business model innovations in water service providers or examining the multiple business models used by a single sanitation service provider.

    Overall, this dissertation has analysed key theories in market-based approaches to poverty alleviation with regard to business model thinking and provides insights into offering services and expanding social impact in BoP markets.

  • Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköpings universitet.
    The Pedagogical Potential of Infrared Cameras in Biology Education2019In: The American Biology Teacher, ISSN 0002-7685, E-ISSN 1938-4211, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 520-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal imagery provides new opportunities to study concepts and processes in biology. Examples include using infrared (IR) cameras in educational activities to explore energy transfer and transformation in human physiology, animal thermoregulation, and plant metabolism. The user-friendly and visually intuitive nature of IR technology is well suited to the study of rapidly changing temperatures on biological surfaces, due to such energy transfers. IR cameras are therefore potentially helpful pedagogical tools for approaching the Energy and Matter crosscutting concept in the Life Sciences discipline of the Next Generation Science Standards.

  • Bhamare, Deval
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Vestin, Jonathan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Khoshkholghi, Mohammad Ali
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Taheri, Javid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    IntOpt: In-Band Network Telemetry Optimization for NFV Service Chain Monitoring2019In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) Próceedings, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing and scaling virtual network function(VNF) service chains require the collection and analysis ofnetwork statistics and states in real time. Existing networkfunction virtualization (NFV) monitoring frameworks either donot have the capabilities to express the range of telemetryitems needed to perform management or do not scale tolarge traffic volumes and rates. We present IntOpt, a scalableand expressive telemetry system designed for flexible VNFservice chain network monitoring using active probing. IntOptallows to specify monitoring requirements for individual servicechain, which are mapped to telemetry item collection jobsthat fetch the required telemetry items from P4 (programmingprotocol-independent packet processors) programmable dataplaneelements. In our approach, the SDN controller creates theminimal number of monitoring flows to monitor the deployedservice chains as per their telemetry demands in the network.We propose a simulated annealing based random greedy metaheuristic(SARG) to minimize the overhead due to activeprobing and collection of telemetry items. Using P4-FPGA, webenchmark the overhead for telemetry collection and compareour simulated annealing based approach with a na¨ıve approachwhile optimally deploying telemetry collection probes. Ournumerical evaluation shows that the proposed approach canreduce the monitoring overhead by 39% and the total delays by57%. Such optimization may as well enable existing expressivemonitoring frameworks to scale for larger real-time networks.

  • Holmes, Natalie P.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Munday, Holly
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Barr, Matthew G.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Thomsen, Lars
    Australian Synchrotron, Australia.
    Marcus, Matthew A.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Kilcoyne, A. L. David
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Fahy, Adam
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Dastoor, Paul C.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Unravelling donor–acceptor film morphologyformation for environmentally-friendly OPV inkformulations2019In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of coating organic photovoltaics (OPV) from green solvents is to achieve the requirednanostructured interpenetrating network of donor and acceptor domains based on a rational choice ofsolvent approach as opposed to the usual trial-and-error methods. We demonstrate here that we canachieve a bicontinuous interpenetrating network with nanoscale phase separation for the chosen donor–acceptor material system poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl]:phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (TQ1:PC61BM) when processing from green solvent ink formulations.This structure is achieved by first calculating the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) of the donor andacceptor materials, followed by careful choice of solvents with selective relative solubilities for the twomaterials based on the desired order of precipitation necessary for forming a nanostructured interdigitatednetwork morphology. We found that the relative distances in Hansen space (Ra) between TQ1 andthe primary solvent, on the one hand, and PC61BM and the primary solvent, on the other hand, could becorrelated to the donor–acceptor morphology for the formulations based on the solvents d-limonene,anisole, and 2-methyl anisole, as well as the halogenated reference solvent o-dichlorobenzene. Thisnanostructured blend film morphology was characterised with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy(STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the film surface composition was analysed bynear edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Hansen solubility theory, based onsolution thermodynamics, has been used and we propose an HSP-based method that is a general platformfor the rational design of ink formulations for solution-based organic electronics, in particular facilitatingthe green solvent transition of organic photovoltaics. Our results show that the bulk heterojunctionmorphology for a donor–acceptor system processed from customised solvent mixtures can be predictedby the HSP-based method with good reliability.

  • Hamm, Peter
    et al.
    Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Germany.
    Krenn, Stephen
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Austria.
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Secure and privacy-preserving identity and access management in CREDENTIAL2019In: Challenges in Cybersecurity and Privacy: the European Research Landscape / [ed] J.B. Bernabe & A. Skarmeta, Delft: River Publishers, 2019, p. 271-284Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasingly interconnected world, establishing trust between endusers and service providers with regards to privacy and data protectionis becoming increasingly important. Consequently, CREDENTIAL, fundedunder the European Union’s H2020 framework programme, was dedicated tothe development of a cloud-based service for identity provisioning and datasharing. The system aimed at offering both high confidentiality and privacyguarantees to the data owner, and high authenticity guarantees to the receiver. This was achieved by integrating advanced cryptographic mechanisms intostandardized authentication protocols. The developed solutions were testedin pilots from three critical sectors, which proved that high user convenience,strong security, and practical efficiency can be achieved at the same timethrough a single system.

  • Nilsson, Mats
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Pilgrimage mobilities: a de Certeauian perspective2019In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, ISSN 0435-3684, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-secular constructions of space and re-configurations of traditional sacred places are examined inspired by de Certeau’s conceptual quadrant of space, place, strategy and tactics. De Certeau’s theorization enables us to draw out the subversive or disruptive spatial practices of post-secular pilgrimages as instances of pedestrian rhetorics, pilgrimage as a space of enunciations and as the double other of both secular and sacred terrains, as well as ‘proper' practices. The article is based on interviews conducted on and off-season with pilgrims in the region of Galicia (Santiago de Compostela and Fisterra). Beyond an intervention in the geography of religion, this paper is also a contribution to the post-secular debate, post-secular geographies and the blurring of the boundaries between the secular and the sacred elicited by philosophers and social scientists.

  • Cooper, Ami
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Skolan som demokratiprojekt: En poststrukturell diskursanalys av demokratiuppdrag och lärarsubjekt2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a poststructural discourse-theoretical perspective, the aim of this thesis is to critically examine the construction of the Swedish compulsory school’s democratic education and its consequences for the teacher subject, in educational policy texts. Set against the backdrop of what is commonly referred to as a crisis of democracy, the study takes its point of departure in changes in educational politics in recent decades and the new national curriculum for the compulsory school in 2011.

    The thesis uses the poststructural discourse-theory of the political philosophers Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe as its theoretical and methodological framework. Their main objective has been to revive socialist politics by suggesting a radical, plural democracy as an alternative for a new left.

    A number of national policy texts were chosen for the analysis. The selection covers official reports and government bills on the Education Act and on the Teacher Education Reform Act, the Education Act, the National Curriculum and a selection of documents from the Swedish National Agency for Education, ranging from 2008 to 2018.

    The main results show that democratic education rests on a notion of the democratic society which creates relations between a democratic universalism based on individual rights and an unspoken national homogeneity. Democratic education is constructed as a broad and complex task aiming at the fostering of democratic competence, assuring equivalent education and counteracting abusive behaviour. The impact of neoliberal policy and new public management philosophy is evident in the empirical material analysed.

    The study concludes that democratic education is constructed as part of a management perspective where democracy becomes the means of achieving a goal – the governed subject – which relates to pupils and teachers alike. In addition, the focus on consensus and rational thinking as well as the tendency to locate conflict resolution in the legal sphere contribute to the notion of a school free from abuse.