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  • Public defence: 2019-12-20 10:00 Eva Eriksson, 21A342, Karlstad
    Mogren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Guiding Principles of Transformative Education for Sustainable Development in Local School Organisations: Investigating Whole School Approaches through a School Improvement Lens2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of an education that empowers students to engage with real societal problems to promote a sustainable future is widely acknowledged. However, the organisational characteristics of schools that facilitate such education for sustainable development (ESD) have received little attention. This thesis aims to fill this research gap by contributing new knowledge on ways that school organisations can implement transformative ESD, while aligning with a whole school approach.

    Swedish upper secondary schools actively implementing ESD were selected for the study. The research design used a mixed-method approach developed from the field of school improvement research. Methods included semi-structured interviews with school leaders and questionnaire surveys for teachers. School leaders’ and teachers’ understanding of quality in their local school organisation was studied.

    The thesis identifies the guiding principles that school leaders and teachers found important for promoting transformative ESD. These include four principal quality criteria that need structural support through collegial meetings to establish a holistic idea of ESD, namely collaborative interaction and school development, student-centred education, cooperation with local society, and proactive leadership and long-term perspective. With the support of the guiding principles, the whole school organisation contributes to teaching and learning practices in ESD active schools.

    The two main contributions are 1) identification of the school organisation that provide firm ground for local implementation of transformative ESD, and 2) that the internal school organisation is a prerequisite for school collaboration with the surrounding society, which is a main goal of ESD, according to policy and theory. In the case of the latter, a student-centred approach in organising education was found to facilitate such links between education and the community, which is a main goal of ESD, according to policy and theory. The results may provide useful recommendations for schools and ESD implementation programmes.

  • Haas, Claus
    Aarhus Universitet, DPU.
    Om historie- og samfundsfagsdidaktisk eklekticisme. Med Grundtvigs folkebegreb som eksempel2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:3, p. 168-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many instances, developing comparative approaches to single subject didactic is a progressive way forward in order to escape rigid boundaries between related subjects. However, even so, a comparative approach still run the risk of reproducing and confirming sectorization of subject boundaries, which in my view ought to be transcended. A more radical way of exceeding single subject boundaries, is to ask: Should a comparative approach be complemented and challenged by subject didactics eclecticism? I argue in favor of the latter approach, with the school subjects history and civics as the main case. I do so, first by exploring arguments for eclecticism among scholars, with the aim of positioning my approach to didactics of history and civics within the ‘cultural turn’ of the social- and human sciences. Secondly, I exemplify how an eclectic approach might look like in practice. The poem ‘Folkeligheden’, published 1848, by the Danish poet, priest and politician N. F. S. Grundtvig, serves as an outset for my empirical example within which eclecticism is useful and unavoidable. Finally, I present two related concepts – politics of memory and imagined communities – which contribute to further the cultural turn and eclecticism of history and civics didactics, needed in order to tackle pressing and intricate issues in late modern democratic societies.  

  • Ledman, Kristina
    Umeå University.
    Discourses of criticality in Nordic countries’ school subject Civics2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:3, p. 149-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Criticality (the ability to think, self-reflect and act critically, as well as reason analytically) is framed as an important goal of education generally, and citizenship education specifically. However, literature and research within subject didactics tend to frame criticality as subject-specific, hence its conceptualisation can vary substantially depending on epistemological and research traditions. Thus, this paper compares its treatment in the same subject, civics, in curricula of the five Nordic countries. Civics is an interesting case as it is a major element of citizenship education, which varies somewhat among the five countries. Four ideal types of criticality are elaborated and deployed in the analysis: general, disciplinary, moral and ideological criticality. The results reveal substantial differences between the five compared curricula. They also reveal apparent correlations between civics as a single-subject construct (as in Denmark and Sweden) and disciplinary criticality, and between civics as an integrated curriculum construct (as in Iceland) and general criticality. Overall, the disciplinary view of criticality slightly prevails in the five compared curricula. The results raise questions about contextual factors’ effects on how criticality is constructed in school subjects, and helps reflection on what we actually refer to when we talk about a certain school subject.

  • Samuelsson, Johan
    Kunskapsdelning om undervisning i historia och SO-ämnena på sociala medier; en komparativ studie mellan USA och Sverige2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:3, p. 101-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a study of how teachers share knowledge about teaching on social media, specifically in teacher groups on Facebook, which is a common channel for teachers sharing experience on teaching issues. Group discussion fora for teachers in the US and Sweden in History and Social Studies Subjects are compared. Most of the posts concern teaching content knowledge in various areas. There are very few examples of discussions on why a topic is being taught, however. The similarities between the US and Sweden in this context are significant, and can be understood as a result of a shared school system, which is characterized by a focus on performance, standards and tests. The group similarities can also be understood in relation to the special "Facebook culture” in which certain expected behaviours recur regardless of national context.

  • Flensner, Karin
    Högskolan Väst.
    Samma konflikter men olika inramning – Kontroversiella frågor relaterade till Mellanösternkonflikterna i religionskunskap och samhällskunskap2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:3, p. 73-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conflicts in the Middle East are not confined to a geographical area but have both a global and a local dimension. International conflicts, crises and acts of terrorism have consequences in the classroom practice, partly because current events are part of the content in social studies subjects, but partly because an increasing number of pupils have personal experiences and/or personal views on different aspects of these conflicts, also in relation to nationalist, xenophobic, antisemitic and islamophobic discourses. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate and compare how the Middle Eastern conflicts and related topics are raised within Religious Education and Social Studies. Are there differences in content and ways of talking in Religious Education compared to Social Studies and, if so, how? What implications have different subject framings for discourses and perspectives and hence, what becomes possible to learn? The study is based on participatory classroom observations of Religious Education and Social Studies at Swedish upper secondary schools. Interviews with teachers and focus group interviews with pupils have been conducted. The analyses indicate that migration, terrorism, anti-semitism, and islamophobia were major themes raised in relation to the conflicts in both subjects. The experiences of pupils largely affected classroom discourse. However, there were differences between how the conflicts were framed and discussed. In Religious Education, it was more common for teachers to downplay conflict perspectives and emphasize empathy, similarities and existential features while in Social Studies there was greater focus on formal ways of dealing with conflicts in terms of regulations and institutions.  

  • Björkgren, Mårten
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi.
    Ahlskog-Björkman, Eva
    Åbo Akademi.
    Enkvist, Nina
    Åbo Akademi.
    Gullberg, Tom
    Åbo Akademi.
    En komparativ förståelse av ämnesdidaktiska prepositioner2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:3, p. 45-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The national curricular guidelines for basic education and upper secondary school require teachers to have a readiness to teach and cooperate in accordance with a holistic multidisciplinary principle. The teacher education programmes in Finland are challenged to develop research-based knowledge about learning processes in holistic multidisciplinary teaching concerning both theory and practice. In this article, focus is put on comparisons between the subject-didactic perspectives of Art, Religion, History, and Social Studies. Referring to Lindström, the prepositions about, in, with and through are used as a point of departure for the aesthetic fields. The comparison is based on the prepositional perspective and particularly focusses on the understanding of the didactic emphases and ambitions. The subject-comparative reflection between similarities and differences is based on a socio-cultural view of learning, and the perspectives qualification, socialisation and subjectification by Giert Biesta. The article contributes to a consciousness about meaningful subject-didactic prerequisites for holistic multidisciplinary cooperation.

  • Nyström, Daniel
    Umeå universitet.
    The Social Studies Subjects and Interdisciplinarity2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:3, p. 24-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the ways in which the term tvärvetenskaplig is conceptualized within the social studies subjects (geography, religious education, civics, and history) in Swedish upper secondary school. The term tvärvetenskaplig is generally translated as interdisciplinary. Through a comparative analysis of syllabi (ämnesplaner), subject didactic textbooks, and schoolbooks, existing descriptions of the term are identified. These descriptions are in turn analyzed using theoretical perspectives on interdisciplinarity. The article agrees with the viewpoint that interdisciplinarity is a form of progressive discourse. Moreover, the analysis employs Heinz Heckhausen’s typology of interdisciplinarity, which differentiates between indiscriminate, pseudo, auxiliary, composite, supplementary, and unifying interdisciplinarity. It is concluded that different subjects ascribe different understandings of interdisciplinarity to the concept of tvärvetenskaplighet.  

  • Larsson, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Kontroversiella samhällsfrågor i samhällsorienterande ämnen 1962–2017: en komparation2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:3, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Teaching social studies in Swedish school involve dealing with many complex and potentially controversial issues. This implies didactical challenges. This article uses a subject comparative perspective to discuss how controversial societal issues have been presented and changed as teaching objects in the social studies subjects in Swedish school years 7 to 9 since 1962. By following curriculum changes over time, the aim is to show similarities and differences between the school subjects of geography, history, religion and civics concerning the role of controversial issues. What controversial issues can be found in the curriculum texts? How are teachers supposed to teach them? What importance for the students are they given? By comparatively answering these research questions this study offers deepened knowledge about the social studies subjects and the role of controversial issues, but also about Swedish curriculum history in general.  

  • Walmann Hidle, Kari-Mette
    et al.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Krogstad, Kari
    Universitetet i Sørøst-Norge .
    Begynneropplæring og nivåspesifikk samfunnsfag- og KRLE-didaktikk for småskoletrinnet2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:3, p. 122-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this article is subject-specific didactics for social studies and religious education for the lower primary level. Since 2017, teacher education for the compulsory education in Norway is extended to a master’s degree and ”initial education” is made a key concept in the trajectory aiming at primary level teaching. The research question in this article is: What is the knowledge base for initial education in social studies and religious education respectively? Thus, the article has a comparative aspect. An analysis of the terms of reference for these educations demonstrates that subject-specific education is made an organising principle and that the basic skills of writing, reading and calculating are prioritised in all studies at the lower primary level. We have analysed the literature for social studies and religious education and found that a common trait between these is that subject-specific didactical research on the lower primary level is scarce. The literature is not concerned with initial education, either in social studies or in religious education. It focuses on subjectspecific topics. The likelihood of the subjects being reduced to a curriculum of basic skills is discussed. Furthermore, we give examples of didactical research on corresponding subjects in the Early Childhood Education and Care, which may well be employed as resources when developing the key elements, content, and methods of these subjects at the lower primary level.

  • Madsen, Roar
    et al.
    NTNU Trondheim.
    Stabel Jørgensen, Camilla
    NTNU Trondheim.
    Editorial 2 Nordidactica 2019:32019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:3, p. vii-viiArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • Larsson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Karlstads universitet.
    Editorial Nordidactica 2019:3: Komparativ ämnesdidaktik2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:3, p. i-viArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2019-12-13 13:00 Andersalen, 11D 121, Karlstad
    Terp, Ulrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Training for Nursing Students2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to examine a stress management intervention developed for nursing students.

    The thesis comprises three studies (Study I-III) based on empirical data from a sample of nursing students. The specific aim in the first study (Paper I) was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of the stress management intervention. The results in the first study suggested that the feasibility of conducting a full-scale evaluation was confirmed for recruitment, acceptability, data collection, and adherence to the intervention. However, difficulties relating to homework were also identified. In the second study (Paper II), the specific aim was to investigate the participants’ experiences of participating in the stress management intervention. Findings indicate that participants developed new adaptive coping strategies, which were attributed to the intervention. The participants expressed that they had increased their ability to reflect which led to increased insight and self-reflection. Findings emphasize the importance of both theoretical and structural aspects when planning a stress management training intervention. A group format delivery in combination with a multi-component cognitive behavioral intervention can be interrelated elements for positive stress-related changes. The third study (Paper III), aimed at investigating preliminary psychological effects regarding self-esteem, self-efficacy and stress management competence. In the third study, the results showed that perceived stress-management competency was improved and had withstanding effects one year later when compared with a control group. Self-esteem and self-efficacy, both psychological resources, increase over time after the intervention. 

    In summary, this dissertation provides an insight into the challenges and the complexities of developing and implementing a stress management intervention in a nurse education context.

  • Dahlstedt, Magnus
    et al.
    Socialt arbete, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Linköpings universitet .
    Vesterberg, Viktor
    Socialt arbete, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Linköpings universitet.
    Vem vill du vara? Televiseradarbetsetik – en kritiskdiskursanalys2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we analyze how jobseekers are represented in the reality TV series The best employment office in Sweden, broadcast on Swedish public television in 2018. Based on a critical discourse analysis, we argue that the series illustrate a broader ideology of today, encouraging continuous makeover among individuals and organizations as well as society at large. According to such ideology, labour appears as a concern primarily for the individual jobseekers who are to strengthen their employability, in order to be competitive in the job market.

  • Soussan, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Alarming attitudinal barriers to help-seekingin drug-related emergency situations: Results from a Swedish online survey2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: New troublesome drug trends constitute a challenge for public health. Sweden has the second highest drug-related mortality rate in Europe. This calls for an investigation into the help-seeking attitudes of young adults to early middle-aged individuals asking how they would act in acute drug-related emergency or overdose situations. Methods: In total, 1232 individuals com- pleted an online survey promoted on Sweden’s largest discussion forum Flashback.org. Their free- text responses were analysed according to inductively generated categories. Results: Around 60% of the sample would act as expected and contact emergency care without hesitation. However, approximately 32% of the sample showed palpable resistance and would put off seeking help and use emergency care only as a last resort due to, for example, fear of legal repercussions and stigma. Moreover, 8% displayed a total lack of confidence in public healthcare and would avoid it at all costs or entirely disregard it as an option due to the alleged risk of negative consequences and expe- rienced restrictions on their personal freedom. Conclusions: While the inevitable criminalisation and stigmatisation associated with Sweden’s “zero tolerance” drug policy putatively serve as deterrents to drug use, our results demonstrate that these measures may also contribute to attitudes which discourage help-seeking. Such attitudes may at least partly explain the growing and comparatively high number of drug-induced deaths. Therefore, attitudinal and structural barriers to acute help-seeking in drug-related emergency situations should be acknowledged and investigated further in order to minimise harm.

  • Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Environmental and Energy Systems.
    Towards Understanding the Pelletizing Process of Biomass: Perspectives on Energy Efficiency and Pelletability of Pure Substances2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of fossil resources has to decrease and the use of renewable resources has to increase significantly to mitigate the climate change. In this change towards more renewable resources, biomasses will play an important role, both for energy use and for products. Thus, the utilization of biomasses must be optimized, both linked to which biomass species that are used, as well as the actual production processes. This thesis relates to the production of lignocellulosic biomass pellets, with the purpose to increase the understanding of how a pellet process can be improved. 

    There are many benefits to pelletize the biomass, such as increased density, more economical transports solutions and increased doseability. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how different biomass species affect the actual pelletizing. This causes pellet producers to strive for a feedstock with a chemical composition that is as uniform as possible, which reduces the possibility of increasing intake of, for example, seasonal or residual products of other kinds.

    If pellet producers can handle, predict and combine different biomaterials over time without stopping the production, new ways of acquiring raw materials for production would be possible. This will be important for future pellet producers, as the general use of biomasses will increase, so will the competition of the raw material. It will also be of importance in developing countries, which have a greater variation in wood species than today's large pellets producing countries. 

    This work has been focused on understanding biomasses pelletability, and the method has been to start with components such as, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin etc. Results shows that there is a significant difference between the hemicelluloses, xylan and glucomannan, in terms of pelletability. During pelletizing, xylan changes its form, generates hard pellets and, correlated to pelletability, xylan are affected by actual moisture content or added water to the process. Glucomannan, however, shows the opposite, a low impact on pelletability and a minimal impact from water during the pelletizing process. A difference that can explain the difference in pelletability, between hardwood and softwood. 

    Solutions to improve the pelletizing process have also been studied. One result is that adding oxidized starch additive, reduces the energy consumption in the pelletizer and increasing the durability of the pellets, more than native starches. Another result is that a two-stage drying technique, reduces the heat power consumption per tonne of dried materialand at the same time increases the drying capacity. Also, the possibilities for a pellet producer to handle, predict and combine different biomaterials has been studied. Presented results show howbiomasses from Zambia can be used as an single resource or in different resources combinations in a pellet production. 

    Finally, a recommendation to pellet researchers to include the cellulose material, Avicel, in single pellet studies. By using the same reference material, the methods can be normalized and the pelletability of biomaterials can be validated in a new way. This step would develop the research in the field, and the possibility of increased use of biomass towards the use of more renewable resources in pellet production.

  • Holm, Marie-Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Tema Genus.
    Fleshing out the self: Reimagining intersexed and trans embodied lives through (auto)biographical accounts of the past2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how current ways of imagining possibilities for intersexed and trans embodied lives within medical contexts might be informed by and reimagined through the historical lived experiences of intersexed and trans individuals as they have been articulated in autobiographical accounts.

    Postmodern, queer, intersex, and trans researchers and activists have criticised existing standards of intersex and trans healthcare for limiting the possibilities for diverse embodied lives by articulating certain forms of embodiment and selfhood as more likely to enable a liveable life than others. This has often been done in a medico-legal context by referring to experiences in the past of the unliveability of corporealities and gendersexed situations that differ from privileged positions. With a point of departure in these critiques, this thesis reopens questions about how intersexed and trans people may be embodied and have relations with others by reflecting upon the period of the first three-quarters of the 20th century, when the present standards of care and diagnostic categories were emerging, but had not yet become established.

    Drawing upon a unique set of historical source material from the archives of the Danish Ministry of Justice and the Medico-Legal Council, intersexed and trans persons’ life stories are rearticulated from their own and medico-legal experts’ accounts written in relation to applications for change of legal gendersex status and medical transition. In this way, the process is traced through which these life stories have been repeatedly rearticulated in order to become a usable basis for diagnosis and decision-making. At the same time, the stories are unfolded once more in a rearticulation focusing on their complexity and diversity.

  • Hållén, Nicklas
    Umeå universitet.
    Travelling Objects: Modernity and Materiality in British Colonial Travel Literature about Africa2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the functions of objects in a selection of British colonial travel accounts about Africa. The works discussed were published between 1863 and 1908 and include travelogues by John Hanning Speke, Verney Lovett Cameron, Henry Morton Stanley, Mary Henrietta Kingsley, Ewart Scott Grogan, Mary Hall and Constance Larymore. The author argues that objects are deeply involved in the construction of pre-modern and modern spheres that the travelling subject moves between. The objects in the travel accounts are studied in relation to a contextual background of Victorian commodity and object culture, epitomised by the 1851 Great Exhibition and the birth of the modern anthropological museum. The four analysis chapters investigate the roles of objects in ethnographical and geographical writing, in ideological discussions about the transformative powers of colonial trade, and in narratives about the arrival of the book in the colonial periphery. As the analysis shows, however, objects tend not to behave as they are expected to do. Instead of marking temporal differences, descriptions of objects are typically unstable and riddled with contradictions and foreground the ambivalence that characterises colonial literature.

  • Reiersdal Aaberg, Oddveig
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Hall-Lord, Marie Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Eikeland Husebø, Sissel Iren
    University of Stavanger, Norway; Stavanger University Hospital, Norway.
    Ballangrud, Randi
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    A complex teamwork intervention in a surgical ward in Norway2019In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-7, article id 582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Interprofessional team training has a positive impact on team behavior and patient safety culture. The overall objective of the study was to explore the impact of an interprofessional teamwork intervention in a surgical ward on structure, process and outcome. In this paper, the implementation of the teamwork intervention is reported to expand the understanding of the future evaluation results of this study. Results: The evidence-based Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) program was implemented in three phases according to the program's implementation plan, which are built on Kotter's organizational change model. In the first phase, a project group with the leaders and researchers was established and information about the project was given to all health care personnel in the ward. The second phase comprised 6 h interprofessional team training for all frontline health care personnel followed by 12 months implementation of TeamSTEPPS tools and strategies. In the third phase, the implementation of the tools and strategies continued, and refresher training was conducted. Trial registration Trial registration number (TRN) is ISRCTN13997367. The study was registered retrospectively with registration date May 30, 2017

  • Johansson, Naimi
    et al.
    University Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Norway.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Effects of primary care cost-sharing among young adults: Varying impact across income groups and gender2019In: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 1271-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the price sensitivity in health care among adolescents and young adults, and assess how it varies across income groups and gender, using a regression discontinuity design. We use the age differential cost-sharing in Swedish primary care as our identification strategy. At the 20th birthday, the copayment increases from €0 to approx. €10 per primary care physician visit and close to this threshold the copayment faced by each person is distributed almost as good as if randomized. The analysis is performed using high-quality health care and economic register data of 73,000 individuals aged 18–22. Our results show that the copayment decreases the average number of visits by 7%. Among women visits are reduced by 9%, for low-income individuals by 11%, and for low-income women by 14%. In conclusion, modest copayments have significant utilization effects, and even in a policy context with relatively low income inequalities, the effect is substantially larger in low-income groups and among women.

  • Bernhoff, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Discrete quantum Boltzmann equation2019In: AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2019, Vol. 2132, p. 1-9, article id 130011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we consider a Boltzmann equation for anyons. In particular, we study a general discrete velocity model of the equation, where the velocity variable is assumed to only take values from a given finite-such that the (finite) number of velocities is arbitrary-set of velocities. Included, as two limiting cases, is the discrete quantum Boltzmann equation (Nordheim-Boltzmann/Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation) for bosons and fermions. Mass, momentum, and energy are assumed to be conserved during collisions, and considering suitable discrete velocity models, they will also be the only collision invariants. The equilibrium distributions will be given by a transcendental equation, and only in some few cases-including the two limiting cases where they are Planckians-they will be explicitly expressed. However, there is an H-theorem, and therefore one can prove that for the spatially homogeneous equation, as time tends to infinity, as well as, for the steady equation in a half-space with slab-symmetry, as the space variable tends to infinity, the distribution function converges to an equilibrium distribution. Linearizing around an equilibrium distribution in a suitable way, we find that the obtained linearized operator has similar properties as the corresponding linearized operator for the discrete Boltzmann equation: E.g. it is symmetric and positive semi-definite. Hence, previously obtained results for the spatially homogeneous Cauchy problem and the steady half-space problem in a slab symmetry for the discrete Boltzmann equation, can be applied also in the considered quantum case.

  • Alizadeh Noghani, Kyoomars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Taheri, Javid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    On the Cost-Optimality Trade-off for Service Function Chain Reconfiguration2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal placement of Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) in virtualized data centers enhances the overall performance of Service Function Chains (SFCs) and decreases the operational costs for mobile network operators. Maintaining an optimal placement of VNFs under changing load requires a dynamic reconfiguration that includes adding or removing VNF instances, changing the resource allocation of VNFs, and re-routing corresponding service flows. However, such reconfiguration may lead to notable service disruptions and impose additional overhead on the VNF infrastructure, especially when reconfiguration entails state or VNF migration. On the other hand, not changing the existing placement may lead to high operational costs. In this paper, we investigate the trade-off between the reconfiguration of SFCs and the optimality of the resulting placement and service flow (re)routing. We model different reconfiguration costs related to the migration of stateful VNFs and solve a joint optimization problem that aims to minimize both the total cost of the VNF placement and the reconfiguration cost necessary for repairing a suboptimal placement. Numerical results show that a small number of reconfiguration operations can significantly reduce the operational cost of the VNF infrastructure; however, too much reconfiguration may not pay off should heavy costs be involved.