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  • Disputas: 2019-10-04 10:00 1A 305, Lagerlöfsalen, Karlstad
    Granrud, Marie Dahlen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013). Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Mental health problems among adolescents: Public health nurses' work and interprofessional collaboration within the school health service2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this thesis was to study adolescents with mental health problems, factors that are associated with mental health problems, visits to the public health nurse (PHN), and how PHNs and other professionals experience the collaboration in school and school health services related to mental health problems.


    Methods: Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Study I included cross-sectional data from Ungdata, with 8052 adolescents. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. Study II included individual interviews with 12 boys and qualitative content analysis was used. In study III, four focus group interviews were conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis. In study IV, 18 PHNs were individually interviewed and a phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the interviews.

    Results: Gender differences were seen in the symptoms of depression, family conflicts and economics, lifestyle habits, school satisfaction and use of school health services with girls reporting in a higher proportion than boys. Boys described barriers such as finding the PHN inaccessible, difficulty talking about mental health problems and uncertainty about confidentiality when visiting the PHN. Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is important for identifying adolescents with mental health problems. Accessibility, having different obligations, lack of criteria and goals and being dependent on others were described as affecting IPC.

    Conclusion: There are differences in boys and girls with girls reporting more mental health problems and visiting the school health service more often than boys. Boys described several barriers to visiting the PHN, but, when these barriers were crossed, the boys experienced the visit as positive. Several factors affected IPC in schools and the school health services. There were variations in the collaboration experienced, but when it worked it was experienced as positive.

  • Disputas: 2019-10-04 13:00 11D 257, Karlstad
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Extending Access: Perspectives on Business Model Innovation in Water and Sanitation Service Provision2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations are attempting to improve the well-being of people living in poverty, whether it be philanthropic, through offering transformative services, or buying into the doing well by doing good ethos of corporate Base of the Pyramid (BoP) strategies. Some of these efforts are being directed towards extending access to safely managed water and sanitation services to everyone. There are many factors that contribute to the complexity of reaching universal water and sanitation coverage including limited finance, cultural practices, and localized effects of climate change. Once a community has access, sustaining it can be hindered by poor design, maintenance, or governance.

    The aim of this dissertation is to examine the roles of business models and business model innovation in providing and later scaling water and sanitation services in low-income countries. In doing so, it brings together poverty alleviation and business model theories to address barriers specific to the water and sanitation sectors. This dissertation is a compilation of seven different papers that follow a case study approach. The cases used in these studies are of non-governmental organizations, social businesses, small and medium-sized enterprises, and multinational enterprises that work in the water and sanitation sector in low-income countries.

    The findings of this dissertation span theoretical levels: business models, business model innovation, and capability development and sectors: water and sanitation. Each paper contributes to the intersection of at least two of these factors, e.g., by classifying business models and business model innovations in water service providers or examining the multiple business models used by a single sanitation service provider.

    Overall, this dissertation has analysed key theories in market-based approaches to poverty alleviation with regard to business model thinking and provides insights into offering services and expanding social impact in BoP markets.