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  • Disputas: 2018-12-14 13:30 1B 364 (Frödingsalen), Karlstad
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Student Sustainability Consciousness: Investigating Effects of Education for Sustainable Development in Sweden and Beyond2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and sustainability education has been an important part of education worldwide for many years, aiming to foster pro-environmental behavior among young people. Education for sustainable development (ESD) and its teaching components holism (the approach to the content) and pluralism (the approach to teaching) has been launched as the educational approach to support this aim by empowering young people with action competence for a sustainable future. Environmental and sustainability certifications are commonly used by schools as support in their ESD-implementation efforts. To date, scholarly attention to, and critical reflection on the effects of such certification on students’ perceptions of sustainability have been limited.

    This doctoral thesis focuses on this gap in ESD research through five large-scale studies, four of which were conducted in Sweden and one in Taiwan. Questionnaire instruments measuring students’ sustainability consciousness (SC) and their experiences of ESD were developed for the project.  In total, 2 413 students in Sweden and 1 741 students in Taiwan (grades six, nine and twelve) participated by filling in the SC questionnaire. The Swedish students also filled in questionnaires about their experiences of ESD at their schools in terms of holistic approach to content and pluralistic approach to teaching.

    The results question the impact of schools’ environmental and sustainability certification on students’ SC. The results also show the importance of holism and pluralism in ESD for students’ SC, regardless of whether schools were certified or not. Moreover, the findings reveal an adolescent dip in students’ SC as well as a gender gap, both of which were reinforced among students in the certified schools.

    Given the findings, this thesis can give more generalizable guidance for schools and certifying organizations to further reorient ESD towards teaching and learning approaches that have an effect on student SC.

  • Disputas: 2018-12-18 10:00 11D 257, Agardhsalen, Karlstad
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Perceived Accessibility: Living a satisfactory life with help of the transport system2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis fills a gap in contemporary transport research and planning as it introduces perceived accessibility as a theoretical and methodological concept for incorporating the individual dimension of accessibility in current practice. Perceived accessibility is defined as “how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system”, and is proposed as a complement to objective measures and understandings of accessibility.

    The thesis includes three studies. Study I developed a measure for capturing perceived accessibility with a specific transport mode, based on theories and conceptualizations of accessibility. Study II looked at determinants of perceived accessibility, and Study III further developed the measure of perceived accessibility to include actual travel (combinations of transport modes), and explored the relation between perceived accessibility and objectively measured accessibility for the same geographical area in Sweden. In all, the thesis provides background ideas and theory on perceived accessibility, and a validated quantitative approach to capturing perceived accessibility in day-to-day travel. Empirical findings further support the complementary nature of the approach and results indicate that assessments of perceived accessibility may be helpful in determining where to direct interventions aiming at improving accessibility by evaluating different transport modes or different segments of individuals. The method developed for capturing perceived accessibility shows merit in contributing to further theory development on accessibility by its ability to identify determinants of perceived accessibility and its potential in identifying segments of the population that experience significantly lower accessibility than other groups, and thus are at risk of experiencing social exclusion or suffer from transport disadvantage.

  • Disputas: 2018-12-18 10:15 21A 244, Ljungberg, Karlstad
    Thorman, Sofia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Where did the ink go?: The effect of liquid absorption on ink distribution in flexography2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The appearance of a print is affected by the individual ink layers. If the ink is unevenly distributed on the substrate it lowers the quality. This thesis puts focus on how the liquid absorbency of a coated substrate impacts on the ink distribution in flexographic printing. It is well known that a smooth surface increases the chances of a uniform print, whereas the influence from an uneven absorption is not established and has even been difficult to measure. If the ink is applied directly onto the substrate, or as an overprint onto already present ink layers, the outcome is even more complex. Ink trapping behaviour affects the uniformity of overprint layers. As of yet, this been largely overlooked in flexography.

    The work includes several trials, from monochrome laboratory printing at 0.5 ms-1 to multicolour printing at 10 ms-1 in production-scale. These studies showed that ink absorption interacted directly with monochrome ink layers and that pore-structures with larger pores and greater liquid uptake generated more uniform prints. The tolerance of uneven pore-structure, and thereby absorption, varied between samples.

    In multicolour printing, the overprint layer interacted directly with the preceding ink and indirectly with the absorbency (rate and uniformity) of the substrate. Overprint layers became thicker when the first ink layer was thinner and, consequently, turned uneven when the first layer was uneven. Moreover, the time between the applications of the two inks was important. When immobilisation of the first ink was too slow or uneven, it disturbed the ink trapping so that the overprint layer became uneven.

    Output from this project offers a palette of tools to use when studying liquid absorption and its impact on print quality: a) experimental approach to separate the influence of uneven absorption from surface roughness, b) aqueous staining technique to characterise absorption non-uniformity, and c) technique to characterise ink trapping non-uniformity.

  • Disputas: 2018-12-21 13:15 Geijersalen, 12A 138
    Fatheddine, Djamila
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Den kroppsliga läsningen: Bildningsperspektiv på litteraturundervisning2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores aspects of reading literature, embodiment and Bildung with a specific focus on literature education in compulsory school. The main purpose of this study is to discuss and problematize literature education in Swedish compulsory schools by focusing on embodiment and Bildung. The theoretical framework of this thesis draws on hermeneutics and phenomenology, and especially on the concepts of experience and the lived body. Through four studies, the thesis investigates different aspects of literature reading and literature teaching. In the first study the focus is on the curriculum of the school subject Swedish, while the second study investigates teachers' classroom practices when teaching literature in years three and five. In the third study, the focus is on pupils in years four and five, who enjoy reading fiction, and their stories and experiences of reading. The fourth study is based on empirical material from the third study that is combined with empirical material presented earlier in order to highlight possible approaches to Bildung in literature education in the school subject Swedish. The methods used in the thesis are textual analysis (study 1), observation (study 2) and interviews (study 3 and 4). 

    The overall result shows that children's reading experiences can be considered a possible way of initiating a process of Bildung, and further that this process has bodily dimensions. The study also reveals that there is a discrepancy between how literature reading is articulated in the Swedish curriculum, on the one hand, and how reading is experienced by pupils and how reading education take place in practice, on the other. Possible implications of this discrepancy is that the formative potential does not reach all pupils.