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  • Public defence: 2018-05-04 09:00 Nyqvistsalen 9C 203, Karlstad
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Effekter av stötdämpande golv som fallskadepreventiv åtgärd för äldre på särskilt boende2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fall-injuries pose a considerable public health problem in the globally growing elderly population. Reducing energy in order to prevent injuries has been successfully applied in many injury prevention fields, though less so within fall injury prevention. Compliant flooring has been proposed as a measure to prevent fall-injury, however little is known regarding the implementation aspects in clinical settings. The aim of this thesis is therefore to investigate the primary injury reducing effect of complaint flooring, as well as secondary effects such as the influence on fall frequency, work environment for the staff and living conditions for the elderly in residential care.

    Falls, and the injury outcome, were registered at a residential care facility in Sweden in which some areas had compliant flooring and other areas had PVC flooring. In two quantitative studies, the difference in the outcomes of falls was studied as well as the effect on the risk of falls depending upon the flooring surface in which the event occurred. In addition, in two qualitative studies, the staff and residents were interviewed on their views on fall prevention and compliant flooring. 

    The results indicate that although the evidence is not fully conclusive, compliant flooring seems to reduce the risk of fall-injuries by over 50% without increasing the risk of falls. Results from the interviews showed that staff appreciated the compliant flooring in that it defused the falls as well as leading to greatly improved acoustics. However, there were also some challenges associated with the compliant flooring, especially the maneuvering of heavy equipment. The elderly also appreciated the intervention, even though the general interest for fall prevention was minimal.

    The results from this thesis indicates that for a frail elderly population, compliant flooring has the potential to be an effective injury prevention measure, without increasing the risk of falls. Furthermore, the results show that with some adjustments, it could also work well from the perspective of residents and staff.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-16 10:15 1B306, Fryxellsalen, Karlstad
    Javed, Asif
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of plasticizing and crosslinking on coatings based on blends of starch-PVOH and starch-lignin2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A barrier material is usually needed on a fiber-based food package to protect the packed food from gases and moisture and thus maintain its quality. Barrier materials presently used in food packaging applications are mostly petroleum-based polymers. Over the last few decades, efforts have been made to replace petroleum-based materials with bio-based materials. The present work has focused on the possibility of using a natural barrier material on a fiber-based food package and the  effects of plasticizing and cross-linking on the mechanical and barrier properties, and the stability in water of coatings based on starch-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and starch-lignin blends.

    The flexibility of the starch films was increased by adding PVOH further by adding a plasticizer. It was shown that citric acid can act as a compatibilizer and cross-linker for starch and PVOH, and the use of citric acid may slow down the diffusion of both oxygen and water vapor if a multilayer coating strategy is used. The addition of polyethylene glycol to the pre-coating recipe resulted in a lower oxygen transmission rate through polyethylene-extruded board than when citric acid was added to the pre-coating. The flexibility of the barrier coatings and the properties of the base substrate affect the cracking tendency of the barrier coatings during the creasing and folding of a barrier-coated board.

    The addition of lignin to the starch reduced the migration of starch from the starch-lignin films and the addition of ammonium zirconium carbonate as a cross-linker reduced the migration of both starch and lignin from the films. The addition of starch to the lignin solution increased the solubility of lignin at low pH, and the pilot-coated board showed a significant decrease in migration of lignin from the coatings containing ammonium zirconium carbonate when the pH of the coating solution was decreased.