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  • Public defence: 2017-12-15 13:00 1B 306 Fryxellsalen, Karlstad
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Habitat compensation in nature-like fishways: Effects on benthos and fish2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of nature-like fishways has become an increasingly common measure to restore longitudinal connectivity in streams and rivers affected by hydroelectric development. These fishways also have the potential to function as habitat compensation measures when running waters have been degraded or lost. The habitat potential has however often been overlooked, and therefore the aim of this thesis was to examine the potential of nature-like fishways for habitat compensation, with special focus on the effect of added habitat heterogeneity.

    This thesis examines the effects of habitat diversity on the macroinvertebrate family composition and functional organization in a nature-like, biocanal-type fishway. The biocanal contained four habitat types; riffle, pool, braided channel and floodplain. The effects of habitat diversity and large woody debris on brown trout habitat choice was also investigated in the biocanal. In addition, and prior to introduction of the threatened freshwater pearl mussel into the biocanal, the suitability of different brown trout strains as hosts for the mussel was examined.

    The results show that the habitat heterogeneity in the biocanal contributed to an increased macroinvertebrate family diversity. The functional organization of the macroinvertebrate community suggests that it was a heterotrophic system and more functionally similar to the main river than to the small streams that it was created to resemble. Brown trout habitat choice studies showed that high densities of large woody debris increase the probability of fish remaining at the site of release. Testing of different brown trout strains as host for the freshwater pearl mussel revealed that both wild and hatchery-reared brown trout strains were suitable hosts. In summary, the results indicate that it is possible to create a fish passage with added value through its high habitat function and that nature-like fishways can be designed to reach multiple species restoration goals.

  • Public defence: 2017-12-15 13:00 Nyqvistsalen, 9C 203, Karlstad
    Wiker, Madeleine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    ”Det är live liksom”: Elevers perspektiv på villkor och utmaningar i Idrott och Hälsa2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on pupils' perspectives, the purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to increased knowledge and in-depth understanding of PE. Sport, exercise and health are important factors for young people’s wellbeing. Children and young people who exercise sleep better, have more energy, learn to cooperate and perform better at school. They also develop different abilities to address the challenges of sport, both in the field of Physical Education and Health [PE] and in their free time.

    The empirical material consists of interview data from eleven focus group interviews with 62 pupils in grade 9, from eight different secondary schools. Using focus group interviews is a method that enables exchange of and changes in knowledge. The method is also suitable for discussions aiming to interpret and understand statements. The dissertation takes a socio-cultural approach and a dialogical perspective on the theory of Social Representation [SR]. SR is characterized by sentences, values, similarities, ideas and practices shared by groups of people in societies and is used as a tool to describe and analyze the creation of common social representations.

    The results show the pupils’ communicating the fact that the grading system in PE is incomplete and unfair; they prefer a multi-rating system. The discussions also showed that the PE teacher plays an important role in the pupils’ vision of PE as a community investment. The analysis featured two key themes: an unfair grading system and a multifaceted PE teacher profession.

    As this dissertation was reaching its finality, the research field of PE shifted to a partly new and different phase. More emphasis is now put on sports, exercise and health as important lifestyle choices and as crucial activities for the wellbeing of young people. From a pupils’ perspective on the conditions and challenges in PE, there is a continuing need to study pupils’ suggestions for change and improvements, as well as the consequences of PE being a subject that is, as one pupil said, “it’s kinda live”.

  • Public defence: 2017-12-15 13:15 Sjöströmsalen, 1B 309, Karlstad
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    I tweet like I talk: Aspects of speech and writing on Twitter2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates linguistic and metalinguistic practices in everyday Twitter discourse in relation to aspects of speech and writing. The overarching aim is to investigate how the spoken–written interface is reconfigured in the digital writing spaces of social media.

    The dissertation comprises four empirical case studies and six chapters. The first study investigates communicative functions of hashtags in a speech act pragmatic framework, focalizing tagging practices that not only mark topics or organize hypertextual interaction, but rather have more specific locally meaningful functions. Two studies investigate reported speech in tweets, focusing on quotatives typically associated with informal conversational interaction (e.g., BE like). The studies identify strategies by which Twitter users animate (Tannen, 2007) speech reports. Further, one of the studies explores how such animating practices are afforded (Hutchby, 2001). Lexically, orthographically, and with images, but primarily through typography, users make voice, gesture, and stance present in their tweets, digitally re-embodying the rich nonverbal expressivity of animation in talk. Finally, a study investigates notions of talk-like tweeting from an emic perspective, showing users' negotiations of how tweets can and should correspond to speech in relation to social identity, linguistic competence, and personal authenticity.

    Six chapters situate and synthesize the case studies in an expanded theoretical framework. Together, the studies show how Twitter's speech–writing hybridity extends beyond a mix of linguistic features, and challenges a traditional idea of writing as a mere representation of speech. Talk-like tweeting remediates (Bolter & Grusin, 2000) presence and embodiment, forgoing the abstraction of phonetic print literacy for nonverbal expressivity and an embodied written surface. Twitter talk is shown not simply to substitute literacy norms for oral norms, but to complicate and reconfigure these norms. Talk-like tweeting makes manifest an ongoing cultural renegotiation of the meanings of speech and writing in the era of digital social media.